ISSN 2398-2969      

Rotavirus

Clapis

Introduction

Classification

Taxonomy

  • Family: Reoviridae.
  • Genus:Rotavirus.

Active Forms

This article is available in full to registered subscribers

Sign up now to obtain ten tokens to view any ten Vetlexicon articles, images, sounds or videos, or Login

Clinical Effects

Epidemiology

Habitat

  • Generally it is distributed in the intestinal tract of multiple mammalian species.
  • However, rotavirus can also be found transiently in feed and water.

Lifecycle

  • Once the virus is ingested it is able to survive the low gastric pH and infects the columnar eipthelial cells of villi apices.
  • Viral multiplication happens intracellulary with extensive cellular damage.

Transmission

  • Feco-oral transmission: the virus is shed in the feces of infected rabbits.
  • Transmission by aerosol has been reported in mice but not confirmed in rabbits.

Pathological effects

  • The virus destroys the enterocytes of intestinal villi. The loss of brush-border enzymes leads to osmotic diarrhea.
  • Histologically, villous atrophy and desquamation and degeneration of the enterocytes on the tips of the villi are present.
  • Secondary infections occur often due toClostridiumspp   Clostridium difficile    Clostridium piliforme   andE. coli  Escherichia coli  .

Control

Control via animal

  • There is no treatment or cure for the rotavirus. However, the infection appears to be self-limiting if young rabbits are not introduced into the infected colony.
  • Experimentally, the virus is shed in the feces for one week. Therefore, it appears that the infection due to rotavirus could be controlled by temporary cessation of breeding for 4-6 weeks.

Control via chemotherapies

  • There is no cure for the virus itself. Supportive therapy will improve the life quality of the infected rabbit while the disease runs its course.
  • The osmotic diarrhea caused by the viral infection leads to the loss of fluids and electrolytes. Supplemental electrolytes must be provided to restore the fluid balance   Fluid therapy  .
  • Antibiotics   Therapeutics: antimicrobials   should also be administered to prevent secondary infection.

Control via environment

  • Sanitary and hygiene practices should minimize exposure.

Diagnosis

This article is available in full to registered subscribers

Sign up now to obtain ten tokens to view any ten Vetlexicon articles, images, sounds or videos, or Login

Further Reading

Publications

Refereed papers

  • Recent references from PubMed and VetMedResource.
  • D'Souza R M, Hall G & Becker N G (2008) Climatic factors associated with hospitalizations for rotavirus diarrhoea in children under 5 years of age. Epidemiol Infect 136 (1), 56-64 PubMed.
  • Fischer T K, Steinsland H & Valentiner-Branth P (2002) Rotavirus particles can survive storage in ambient tropical temperatures for more than 2 months. J Clin Microbiol 40 (12), 4763-4764 PubMed.
  • Thouless M E, DiGiacomo R F, Deeb B J et al (1988) Pathogenicity of rotavirus in rabbits. J Clin Microbiol 26 (5), 943-947 PubMed.
  • Estes M K, Graham D Y, Smith E M et al (1979) Rotavirus stability and inactivation. J Gen Virol 43 (2), 403-409 PubMed.

Other sources of information

  • Boshuizen J (2005) Pathogenesis of Rotavirus Infection Thesis. Erasmus University, Rotterdam.
  • Aiello S E (1998) Exotic and Laboratory Animals. In: Merck's Veterinary Manual. 8th edn. pp 1263-1433.

Can’t find what you’re looking for?

We have an ever growing content library on Vetlexicon so if you ever find we haven't covered something that you need please fill in the form below and let us know!

 
 
 
 

To show you are not a Bot please can you enter the number showing adjacent to this field

 Security code