ISSN 2398-2969      

Proteus spp

Clapis

Synonym(s): P. mirabilis, P. vulgaris


Introduction

Classification

Taxonomy

  • Family: Enterobacteriaceae.
  • Genus:Proteus.

Etymology

  • Gk:Proteus- an ocean God able to change himself into different shapes.
  • Lat:mirabilis- wonderful;vulgaris- common.

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Clinical Effects

Epidemiology

Habitat

  • Part of normal flora of gastrointestinal and urogenital tracts, and skin.

Lifecycle

  • Multiplies by binary fission.
  • May undergo conjugation with otherEnterobacteriaceae, with transfer of plasmids.

Transmission

  • Endogenous or exogenous infections.

Pathological effects

  • Compromise of immune system   →   opportunistic infections.
  • Trauma   →   opportunistic infection   →   pathogenic.

diseases

  • Urinary tract infection - dogs, cats and horses. Also found in urine of healthy horses.
  • Infections of genital tract, eg epididymitis - horses.
  • Diarrhea in young animals.
  • Otitis externa - dogs and cats, often as a component of mixed infections.
  • Occasionally isolated from cases of respiratory tract disease (horses); more common in foals.

Other Host Effects

  • Part of normal gastrointestinal flora.
  • Part of normal skin flora in some dogs and cats.
  • Part of normal flora of urogenital tract in some horses.

Control

Control via animal

  • Normal commensal, so not possible.

Control via chemotherapies

Susceptibility
  • To a range of antibiotics, including beta-lactams, potentiated sulfonamides and cephalosporins.
  • Equine isolates more typically susceptible to amikacin   Amikacin  than gentamycin   Gentamicin  .

Resistance

  • A problem, as in all enterobacteria.

Control via environment

  • Adherence to strict cleaning and disinfection procedures will reduce the incidence of the bacteria in the environment.

Vaccination

  • None.

Diagnosis

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Further Reading

Publications

Refereed papers

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