Felis ISSN 2398-2950

Radiography: intravenous urography

Synonym(s): IVU

Contributor(s): Barbara J Watrous

Introduction

  • Visualization of urinary tract anatomy and limited assessment of urinary tract function.

Uses

  • Investigation of urinary incontinence Urinary incontinence.
  • Investigation of anuria.
  • Investigation of hematuria or pyuria not arising from the lower urogenital tract.
  • Investigation of suspect urinary bladder disease when bladder cannot be catheterized.
  • Investigation of abnormal renal size Kidney: hydronephrosis (IVU) and shape and position.
  • Investigation of retroperitoneal swellings.
  • Investigation of suspect ureteric disease, eg ectopic ureters Ureter: ectopic bilateral - IVU lateral .
  • Identification of kidneys when not visible on plain radiographs.

Advantages

  • Relatively simple procedure in most patients.
  • Non invasive.

Disadvantages

  • General anesthesia recommended.
  • Limited use in assessing renal function.
  • Contraindicated if moderately or severely azotemia.
  • Risk of anaphylactic or adverse reactions to contrast (rare).
  • Large volume of contrast may affect cardiovascular system.

Requirements

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Preparation

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Procedure

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Aftercare

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Outcomes

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Further Reading

Publications

Refereed papers

  • Feeney D A, Barber D L & Osborne C A (1982) The functional aspects of the nephrogram in excretory urography - A review. Vet Radiol 23 (2), 42-45 VetMedResource.
  • Feeney D A, Barber D L, Johnson G R & Osbourne C A (1982) The excertory urethrogram - Part I techniques, normal radiographic appearance and misinterpretation. Comp Cont Ed Pract Vet 4, 233-240.

Other sources of information

  • Knelle S K (1974) Role of the excretory urogram in the diagnosis of renal and ureteral disease. Vet Clin North Am 4, 834-861.


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