Felis ISSN 2398-2950

Radiography: intra-oral parallel and bisecting angle

Contributor(s): Alex Smithson

Introduction

  • See dental radiography overview Dental radiography: overview.
  • Positioning X-ray film inside mouth minimizes superimposition of irrelevant structures.

Uses

  • Parallel technique: if angle between tooth and film <15° mandibular, ie molars and pre-molars Dental radiography: parallel technique 01 - for mandibular premolar and molar teeth  Dental radiography: parallel technique 02 - for mandibular molar and pre molar teeth .
  • Target teeth situated parallel to x-ray film with x-ray beam at 90° to film.
  • Bisecting angle technique: to give an image the same length as the object: if angle between tooth and film = >15° (maxillary molars/premolars, mandibular and maxillary incisors/canines) Dental radiography: bisecting angle technique 01 - left maxillary canine  Dental radiography: bisecting angle technique 02 - right mandibular canine .

Advantages

  • Parallel: simple.
  • Bisecting angle: minimizes superimposition of other structures.

Disadvantages

  • Parallel: limited to mandibular molars and pre-molars.
  • Bisecting angle: more technical to obtain; inaccuracies with flawed technique; good at casting the 'shadow' if superimposition of other structures occurs.

Requirements

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Preparation

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Procedure

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Further Reading

Publications

Refereed papers

  • Recent references from PubMed and VetMedResource.
  • Smithson A (2006) Oral radiology Part 2: Image interpretationUK Vet 11 (1), 40-44 ResearchGate.
  • Smithson A (2005) Oral radiology Part 1. UK Vet 10 (8), 57.

Other sources of information

  • Veterinary Dentistry for the General Practitioner (2004) Dr Cecilia Gorrel,  Saunders.
  • Mulligan, Aller, Williams (1998) Atlas of canine and feline dental radiography. In: Veterinary Learning Systems. Trenton, NJ, USA (Excellent reference for dental radiography).


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