Felis ISSN 2398-2950

Laparoscopy: ovariectomy

Synonym(s): Laparoscopic ovariectomy; Keyhole spay; Laparoscopic spay

Contributor(s): Philip Lhermette, Eric Monnet

Introduction

  • Ovariectomy is a viable alternative to ovariohysterectomy   Ovariohysterectomy   in the dog and cat and has been practised in Europe since 1981. Ovariectomy is less complicated, less time consuming and produces less morbidity than ovariohysterectomy and is therefore the procedure of choice for gonadectomy in the healthy bitch. Laparoscopic ovariectomy reduces morbidity further and speeds recovery.

Uses

  • A minimally invasive technique for surgical removal of the ovaries in dogs and cats.

Elective

  • Prevention of estrus.
  • Control of breeding.
  • Prophylaxis of mammary neoplasia Mammary gland: neoplasia if performed early - preferably before first season.
  • Reduced prevalence of acquired inguinal hernias Inguinal hernia.

Ovarian disease

  • Neoplasia Ovary: neoplasia.
  • Abnormal estrus cycles.
  • Ovarian cysts.
  • Uterine disease.
  • Prevention/prophylaxis of pyometra Pyometra /cystic endometrial hyperplasia (CEH).

Vaginal disease

Systemic disorders

Advantages

  • Reduced soft tissue trauma.
  • Reduced peri-operative pain.
  • Reduced hemorrhage.
  • Faster recovery.
  • Smaller wounds - less interference from patient and no buster collar required.
  • Improved surgical visualization.
  • As for open ovariohysterectomy, significantly reduces incidence of mammary tumors if done early.
  • Relatively safe procedure.

Disadvantages

  • Requires additional instrumentation/expense.
  • Requires laparoscopic training Laparoscopy.
  • As for open ovariohysterectomy, may predispose to urinary incontinence Urinary incontinence and obesity.

Requirements

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Preparation

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Procedure

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Aftercare

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Outcomes

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Prognosis

  • Excellent.

Further Reading

Publications

Refereed papers

  • Recent references from PubMed and VetMedResource.
  • Culp W T, Mayhew P D & Brown D C (2009) The Effect of Laparoscopic Versus Open Ovariectomy on Postsurgical Activity in Small Dogs. Vet Surg 38 (7), 811-817 PubMed.
  • van Goethem B V, Schaefers-Okkens A, Kirpensteijn J (2006) Making a rational choice between ovariectomy and ovariohysterectomy in the dog: A discussion on the benefits of either technique. Vet Surg 35 (2), 136-143 PubMed.
  • Devitt C M, Cox R E, Hailey J J (2005) Duration, complications, stress, and pain of open ovariohysterectomy versus a simple method of laparoscopic-assisted ovariohysterectomy in dogs. J Am Vet Med Assoc 227 (6), 921-7 PubMed.
  • Davidson E B, Moll H D, Payton M E (2004) Comparison of laparoscopic ovariohysterectomy and ovariohysterectomy in dogs. Vet Surg 33 (1), 62-69 PubMed.
  • Okkens A C, Kooistra H S, Nickel R F (2003) Comparison of long term effects of ovariectomy versus ovariohysterectomy in bitches. Der Praktische Tierarzt 84 (2), 98-101 VetMedResource.

Other sources of information

  • Freeman L (2012) Operative Laparoscopy; Ovariectomy, ovariohysterectomy. In: Clinical Manual of Small Animal Endosurgery. Hotston-Moore A & Ragni R A(Ed) Wiley-Blackwell, pp 143-147.
  • Hutchison R (2011) Laparoscopic spay of the female canine and feline. In: Small Animal Endoscopy 3rd edn. Tams T and Rawlings C (Ed), Mosby. pp 466-477.
  • Lhermette P, Monnet E, Sobel D (2008) Rigid Endoscopy: laparoscopy. In: Canine and Feline Endoscopy and Endosurgery, Lhermette P, Sobel D (Ed), BSAVA, Gloucester, pp 158-174.
  • Hancock R B, Lanz O I, Waldron D R et al (2004) Comparison  of postoperative pain following ovariohysterectomy via harmonic scalpel-assisted laparoscopy versus traditional ovariohysterectomy in dogs. ACVS Scientific Presentation Abstracts; E18.


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