ISSN 2398-2950      

Cystoscopy: transurethral cystoscopy/vaginoscopy

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Introduction

  • Transurethral cystoscopy/vaginoscopy.

Uses

Advantages

  • Complements other diagnostic imaging techniques (eg radiography and ultrasonography).
  • Increased diagnostic accuracy compared to contrast procedures.
  • Provides means of selectively obtaining biopsy specimens under direct visualization.
  • High definition images are in color and can record still images and video clips for monitoring progression/regression of disease.
  • Compared to traditional cystotomy Cystotomy, cystoscopy offers a well illuminated, magnified image of the bladder and the entire urethra and does not require invasive surgery.

Disadvantages

  • Some bladder pathology (ie large bladder stones, tumors, polyps) may need to be removed via laparoscopic-assisted cystoscopy or traditional cystotomy, especially in male dogs and cats.

Requirements

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Preparation

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Procedure

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Aftercare

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Further Reading

Publications

Refereed papers

Other sources of information

  • Rawlings C A, Berent A C (2011) Cystoscopy. In: Tams T R, Rawlings C A (eds) Small Animal Endoscopy, St. Louis,  Elsevier Mosby.
  • Rawlings C A (2009) Diagnostic Rigid Endoscopy: Otoscopy, Rhinoscopy, and Cystoscopy. Vet Clin North Am Small Anim Pract 39, 849-868.
  • Hotston-Moore A, England G (2008) Rigid endoscopy: Urethrocystoscopy and vaginoscopy. In: Lhermette P, Sobel D (eds): BSAVA Manual of Canine and Feline Endoscopy and Endosurgery, Quedgeley,  British Small Animal Veterinary Association.

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