Felis ISSN 2398-2950

Cystocentesis

Contributor(s): Andrew Gardiner, Rosa Ragni, Melissa Wallace

Introduction

  • Percutaneous aspiration of the bladder for diagnostic or therapeutic purposes.
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Uses

  • Cystocentesis provides an optimal, uncontaminated sample for urine culture and sensitivity studies.
  • The procedure occasionally forms part of stabilization techniques in cats with lower urinary tract obstruction, when emergency decompression of the bladder is required and a catheter cannot be passed.

Advantages

  • Cystocentesis is the method of choice for sample collection for urine culture and sensitivity Urinalysis: culture and sensitivity since the occurrence of accidental contamination, and therefore spurious or false positive results, is minimized.
  • Less risk for iatrogenic urinary tract infection Cystitis: bacterial than with urethral catheterization Urethra: catheterization particularly in patients with previous urinary tract trauma Bladder: trauma rupture or high risk of infection (hyperadrenocorticism, diabetes mellitus).

Disadvantages

  • Requires co-operative patient or sedation.
  • Cannot be performed if bladder empty, atonic, or in patients with suspected bladder neoplasia Bladder: neoplasia or emphysematous cystitis.
    Blind cystocentesis (when bladder cannot be palpated) is NOT recommended. In these cases prefer ultrasound guided cystocentesis Cystocentesis: ultrasound-guided
  • When used in the overdistended bladder, cystocentesis may occasionally result in laceration of the bladder wall, therefore it should only be used as an emergency procedure when catheterization has failed.

Requirements

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Preparation

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Procedure

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Aftercare

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Outcomes

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Further Reading

Publications

Refereed papers

  • Recent references from PubMed and VetMedResource.
  • van Duijkeren E, van Laar P & Houwers D J (2005) Cystocentesis is essential for reliable diagnosis of urinary tract infections in cats. EJCAP 15 (1), 54-57 VetMedResource.
  • Kruger J M, Osborne C A, Ulrich L K (1996) Cystocentesis. Diagnostic and therapeutic considerations. Vet Clin North Am Small Anim Pract 26 (2), 353-361 PubMed.
  • Osborne C A, Kruger J M, Lulich J P et al (1996) Medical management of feline urethral obstruction. Vet Clin North Am Small Anim Pract 26 (3), 483-498 PubMed.

Other sources of information

  • Cystocentesis. iCatCare: https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=BC6aXOupdXc
  • Chew D J, DiBartola S P, Schenck P A (2011) Urinalysis. In: Canine and Feline Nephrology and Urology, 2nd edn. Elsevier Saunders, St Louis, pp 1-31.
  • Lulich J P, Osbourne C A (2004) Cystocentesis: Lessons from Thirty Years of Clinical Experience. NAVC Clinician's Brief. December 2004, pp 11-14.


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