Felis ISSN 2398-2950

Congenital portosystemic shunt: attenuation

Synonym(s): Postosytemic shunt ligation

Contributor(s): Ed Hall, Mickey Tivers

Introduction

  • Surgery to attenuate congenital portosystemic shunt (CPSS) aims to restore normal blood flow to the liver and hence resolve clinical signs associated with functional hepatic insufficiency.
  • A variety of techniques can be employed to achieve CPSS attenuation:
    • Suture attenuation.
    • Ameroid constrictor placement.
    • Cellophane band.
    • Coil embolization (interventional radiology).
  • Complete attentuation of the CPSS either acutely or using a technique that achieves gradual attenuation is preferable.
    Should not be attempted in practice - refer for surgery.

Uses

Aims of surgery

  • Identify abnormal vessel and confirm diagnosis.
  • Provide acute or gradual attenuation of CPSS to redirect portal blood flow to liver.
  • Resolve clinical signs and hepatic insufficiency.
  • Liver biopsy to confirm diagnosis and rule out concurrent disease processes.

Advantages

  • Attenuation associated with an improvement in or resolution of clinical signs.
  • Successful surgery obviates the need for long term medical management, which is attractive to many owners for reasons of convenience and finance.
  • Surgery likely to provide better overall outcome than medical management alone, although there is little information on long term medical management in the cat.

Disadvantages

  • Complicated surgery - refer to a specialist.
  • Also requires specialist anesthesia and postoperative care.
  • Specialized equipment and facilities often required.
  • Significant postoperative complications can occur.
  • Intrahepatic shunts are more challenging to treat surgically.

Requirements

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Preparation

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Procedure

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Aftercare

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Outcomes

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Prognosis

  • Good if surgery successful. Reports describe an excellent or good outcome in 33.3-80% of surgically treated cats.
  • Clinical signs often resolve completely.
  • Long-term prognosis unclear but is likely to be worse for animals with signs of persistent shunting.

Further Reading

Publications

Refereed papers

  • Recent references from PubMed and VetMedResource.
  • Cabassu J, Seim H B 3rd, Macphail C M et al (2011) Outcomes of cats undergoing surgical attenuation of congenital extrahepatic portosystemic shunts through cellophane banding: 9 cases (2000-2007). JAVMA 238 (1), 89-93 PubMed.
  • Tivers M & Lipscomb V (2011) Congenital portosystemic shunts in cats. Investigation, diagnosis and stabilisation. J Fel Med Surg 13 (3), 173-184 PubMed.
  • Tivers M & Lipscomb V (2011) Congenital portosystemic shunts in cats. Surgical management and prognosis. J Fel Med Surg 13 (3), 185-194 PubMed.
  • Lipscomb V J, Lee K C, Lamb C R et al (2009) Association of mesenteric portovenographic findings with outcome in cats receiving surgical treatment for single congenital portosystemic shunts. JAVMA 234 (2), 221-228 PubMed.
  • Lipscomb V J, Jones H J & Brockman D J (2007) Complications and long-term outcomes of the ligation of congenital portosystemic shunts in 49 cats. Vet Rec 160 (14), 465-470 PubMed.
  • Hunt G B, Kummeling A, Tisdall P L et al (2004) Outcomes of cellophane banding for congenital portosystemic shunts in 106 dogs and 5 cats. Vet Surg 33 (1), 25-31 PubMed.
  • Havig M & Tobias K M (2002) Outcome of ameroid constrictor occlusion of single congenital extrahepatic portosystemic shunts in cats: 12 cases (1993-2000). JAVMA 220 (3), 337-341 PubMed.
  • Kyles A E, Hardie E M, Mehl M et al (2002) Evaluation of ameroid ring constrictors for the management of single extrahepatic portosystemic shunts in cats: 23 cases (1996-2001). JAVMA 220 (9), 1341-1347 PubMed.
  • Tillson D M & Winkler J T (2002) Diagnosis and treatment of portosystemic shunts in the cat. Vet Clin North Am Small Animal Pract 32 (4), 881-899 PubMed.
  • Weisse C, Schwartz K, Stronger R et al (2002) Transjugular coil embolization of an intrahepatic portosystemic shunt in a cat. JAVMA 221 (9), 1287-1291 PubMed.
  • White R N & Burton C A (2001) Anatomy of the patent ductus venosus in the cat. J Feline Med Surg (4), 229-233 PubMed.
  • Wolschrijn C F, Mahapokai W, Rothuizen J et al (2000) Gauged attenuation of congenital portosystemic shunts: Results in 160 dogs and 15 cats. Vet Q 22 (2), 94-98 PubMed.
  • Vogt J C, Krahwinkel D J Jr., Bright R M et al (1996) Gradual occlusion of extrahepatic portosystemic shunts in dogs and cats using the ameroid constrictor. Vet Surg 25 (6), 495-502 PubMed.
  • White R N, Forster van Hijfte M A, Petrie G et al (1996) Surgical treatment of intrahepatic portosystemic shunts in six cats. Vet Rec 139 (13)314-317 PubMed.
  • VanGundy T E, Boothe H W & Wolf A (1990) Results of Surgical Management of Feline Portosystemic Shunts. JAVMA 26 (1), 55-62 VetMedResource.
  • Blaxter A C, Holt P E, Pearson G R et al (1988) Congenital Portosystemic Shunts in the Cat - a Report of 9 Cases. JSAP 29 (10), 631-645 Wiley Online Library.


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