ISSN 2398-2950      

Urinalysis: dipstick

ffelis

Synonym(s): Multitest


Overview

  • Changes in chemical and physical characteristics of urine occur in urinary tract and systemic disease and trauma.
  • Such changes can be detected by the reaction of specific components with reagents impregnated in dipstick pads which produce characteristically graded color changes.
  • Results are qualitative and depend on subjective interpretation of user.

Sampling

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Tests

Methodologies

  • Rapid, complete immersion of the dipstick with immediate shaking off of excess urine as well as holding the dipstick level is needed to avoid run-off between pads.
  • Compare the color change of dipstick to the reference range at the correct time specified on product.
  • Determine specific gravity by refractometer.
    Dipstick specific gravity does not correlate well with refractometry.

Availability

  • Can be performed in-house.
  • All external laboratories.

Validity

Sensitivity

  • Low to high.

Specificity

  • Low to moderate.

Technique (intrinsic) limitations

  • ?Reliable reading of specific gravity of urine.

Technician (extrinsic) limitations

  • Interpretation of color change is subjective, so routine use of the same technician/vet will result in more consistent results.

Result Data

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Further Reading

Publications

Refereed papers

  • Recent references from VetMedResource and PubMed.
  • Brobst D (1989) Urinalysis and associated laboratory procedures. Vet Clin North Am Small Anim Pract 19 (5), 929-949.
  • McCaw D L, Fleming E J & Mikiciuk M G (1989) Interpreting the results of urinalysis - a key to diagnosing renal disorders. Vet Med 84 (3), 281-286.

Other sources of information

  • Kaneko J J (1997) Clinical Biochemistry of Domestic Animals. 5th edn. Eds: Harvey J W & Bruss M L. Academic Press, USA.
  • Duncan J R, Prasse K W & Mahaffey E A (1994) Veterinary Laboratory Medicine Clinical Pathology. 3rd edn. Iowa University Press, USA.

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