Felis ISSN 2398-2950

Blood biochemistry: fructosamine

Contributor(s): David Bruyette, Audrey K Cook, Jane Miller


  • Glycosylated/glycated protein complexes.
  • Form in blood in non-enzymatic, non-insulin-dependent manner.
  • [Fructosamine] proportional to [glucose] over life span of proteins (1-2 weeks).
  • Provides long term view of average blood glucose Blood biochemistry: glucose.
  • Changes in blood glucose are reflected within 7-10 days by changes in fructosamine concentrations.
  • Less affected by short-term factors: stress, feeding, exercise.
    Very useful in cats to differentiate animals with stress hyperglycemia from true diabetics.
  • Useful in diagnosis of diabetes mellitus Diabetes mellitus and to monitor response to insulin therapy.


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  • In-clinic tests available.
  • Specialist commercial laboratories.

Result Data

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Further Reading


Refereed papers

  • Recent references from VetMed Resource and PubMed.
  • Pattullo K M, Kidney B A (2014) Reference point: exploring fructosamine beyond diabetes mellitus. JAVMA 244(11), 1268-1277 PubMed.
  • Roomp K, Rand J S (2013) Management of diabetic cats with long-acting insulin. Vet Clin North Am Small Animal Pract 43(2), 251-266 PubMed.
  • Link K R & Rand J S (2008) Changes in blood glucose concentrations are associated with relatively rapid changes in circulating fructosamine concentrations in cats. J Feline Med Surg 10, 583-592 PubMed.
  • Reusch C E & Tomsa K (1999) Serum fructosamine concentration in cats with overt hyperthyroidism. JAVMA 215, 1297-1300.
  • Crenshaw K C, Peterson M E, Heeb LA et al(1996) Serum fructosamine concentrations as an index of glycemia in cats with diabetes mellitus and stress hyperglycemia. JVIM 10, 360-364.
  • Reusch C E, Liehs M R, Hoyer M, Vochezer R (1993) A new parameter for diagnosis and metabolic control in diabetic dogs and cats. JVIM 7, 177-182.
  • Thorensen S I & Bredal W P (1996) Clinical usefulness of fructosamine measurements in diagnosing and monitoring feline diabetes mellitus. JSAP 37, 84-88.
  • Thorensen SI & Bredal WP (1995) Determination of a reference range for fructosamine in feline serum samples. Vet. Res. Comm.19, 353-361.
  • Akol K G, Waddle J R & Wilding P (1992) Glycated hemoglobin and fructosamine in diabetic and non-diabetic cats . JAAHA 28, 227-231.
  • Jensen AL (1992) Serum fructosamine in canine diabetes mellitus - an initial study. Vet. ResComm.16, 1-9.