Felis ISSN 2398-2950

Tramadol

Contributor(s): Jo Murrell

Introduction

Name

  • Tramadol hydrochloride.

Class of drug

  • Analgesic drug with both an opioid and non-opioid mediated mechanisms of analgesic action.

Description

Chemical name

  • (±) cis-2-[(dimethylamino)methyl]-1-(3-methoxyphenyl) cyclohexanol hydrochloride

Molecular weight

  • 299.8

Physical properties

  • Tramadol is available in many different formulations including tablets, capsules and an injectable preparation.
  • In the UK, tramadol hydrochloride 50 mg tablets (Ultram®) are the most readily available formulation and therefore this is the most widely used form.

Storage requirements

Uses

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Indications

  • Mild to moderate acute pain.
  • Adjunctive analgesic agent in management of chronic pain from cancer or OA.
  • The pharmacokinetics and pharmacodynamics of tramadol are not well described in cats, therefore tramadol should not be used as a first line analgesic drug. Due to the oral tablet formulation and fact that it can be dispensed to owners, it is useful for provision of medium to long-term analgesia in the home environment. It is an alternative analgesic drug for animals that are intolerant of NSAIDs, or it can be given in combination with NSAIDs to animals that remain painful despite NSAID therapy. Tramadol appears to be efficacious for the management of both acute and chronic pain.

Administration

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Pharmocokinetics

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Precautions

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Interactions

with other drugs

  • Because of tramadols monoamine reuptake inhibition, it should not be given with tri-cyclic antidepressants, serotonin reuptake inhibitors or monoamine oxidase inhibitors due to the risk of serotonin syndrome (increased heart rate, pupil dilation, twitching and hyperreflexia) and potential for seizures.

Adverse Reactions

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Further Reading

Publications

Refereed papers

  • Recent references fromPubMed.
  • Brondani J T, Luna S P, Beier S L, Minto B W, Padovani C R (2009)Analgesic efficacy of perioperative use of vedaprofen, tramadol or their combination in cats undergoing ovariohysterectomy.J Feline Med Surg11(6), 420-429 PubMed
  • Steagall P, Taylor P M, Brondani J T, Luna S P, Dixon M J (2008)Antinociceptive effects of tramadol and acepromazine in cats.J Feline Med Surg10, 24-31PubMed.
  • Pypendop B H & Ilkiw J E (2007)Pharmacokinetics of tramadol and the metabolite O-desmethyltramadol in dogs.J Vet Pharmacol Therap31, 52-59PubMed.

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