Felis ISSN 2398-2950

Sulfadiazine

Synonym(s): Sulphadiazine, Borgal, Delvoprim, Duphatrim, Equitrim, Norodine, Scorprin, Sulfonamide, Tribrissen, Trimabac, Trimedoxine, Trivetrin, Monotrim, Trimethoprim, Biotrim

Introduction

Name

  • Trimethoprim/Sulfonamide.

Class of drug

  • Potentiated sulfonamide antibiotic.

Uses

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Indications

  • Many organisms are susceptible includingNocardia  Nocardia spp  ,Brucella, Gram-negative bacilli, some Gram-positive organisms (Streptococcispp   Streptococcus spp  ,Pneumocystis carinii  Pneumocystis carinii  ,Toxoplasma gondii  Toxoplasma gondii  and coccidial species   Coccidioides immitis  .
  • Pseudomonasspp   Pseudomonas spp  andLeptospiraspp   Leptospira interrogans  are usually resistant.
  • Trimethoprim/sulfonamide is useful in the management of urinary, respiratory tract and prostatic infections,but are ineffective in the presence of necrotic tissue.
  • Trimethoprin alone may be used for urinary, prostatic, systemic salmonella and respiratory tract infections.
  • Fewer adverse effects are seen with trimethoprin alone.

Administration

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Pharmocokinetics

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Precautions

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Interactions

with other drugs

Warfarin
  • The anticoagulant effect of warfarin may be enhanced by trimethoprim/sulfonamide.
    Antacids
  • May decrease the bioavailability of sulfonamides if administered concurrently.
  • Although sulfonamides may displace other plasma protein-bound drugs such as methotrexate   Methotrexate  , oral hypoglycemic agents, phenylbutazone   Phenylbutazone  , phenytoin   Phenytoin  , probenecid , thiazide diuretics and salicylates   Acetyl salicylic acid  , the clinical relevance of such interactions is unclear. However, patients should be monitored for enhanced effects of displaced agents.
  • Urinary acidifiers increase the risk of sulfonamide crystal formation within the urinary tract.
  • Drugs containing procaine may inhibit the action of sulfonamides.

with diagnostic tests

  • When using the Jaffe alkaline picrate reaction assay for creatinine determination trimethoprim/sulfonamide may cause an over estimation of approximately 10%.

Adverse Reactions

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Further Reading

Publications

Other sources of information

  • Based onSmall Animal Formulary.Tennant, Bryn (1999) 3rd edn. Cheltenham: BSAVA.

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