Felis ISSN 2398-2950

Levetiracetam

Synonym(s): Keppra

Contributor(s): Simon Platt

Introduction

Name

  • IUPAC.

Class of drug

  • Anticonvulsant.

Description

Chemical name

  • 2-(2-oxopyrrolidin-1-yl)butanamide.

Molecular formula

  • C8H14N2O2

Molecular weight

  • 170.209

Physical properties

  • Levetiracetam is a white to off-white crystalline powder with a faint odor and a bitter taste.

Storage requirements

  • Store in tightly closed container at room temperature away from heat and direct sunlight.

Uses

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Indications

  • Adjunct therapy for canine seizures refractory to standard medication.
  • Levetiracetam has been documented as the most well tolerated anti-epileptic drug in humans, with adverse reactions equivalent to placebo. Overall, this drug is proven to be a highly effective adjunctive therapy in humans to control seizures refractory to treatment.
  • It will be a useful drug to consider in dogs suffering from hepatic dysfunction or from phenobarbital liver insufficiency, allowing reduction of the phenobarbital dosage.
  • Recent reports demonstrate that levetiracetam is effective in reducing seizure frequency initially in over 50% of dogs but most dogs experience an increase in their seizure frequency after 4-8 months of treatment.
  • Results in cats suggest that levetiracetam is well tolerated and may be useful as an adjunct to phenobarbital   Phenobarbital  treatment in cats with idiopathic epilepsy   Epilepsy: idiopathic  .

Administration

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Pharmocokinetics

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Adverse Reactions

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Further Reading

Publications

Refereed papers

  • Recent references from PubMed.
  • Bailey K S, Dewey C W, Boothe D M, Barone G 7 Kortz G D(2008)Levetiracetam as an adjunct to phenobarbital treatment in cats with suspected idiopathic epilepsy.JAVMA232, 867-872PubMed.
  • Volk H A, Matiasek L A, Feliu-Pascual A L, Platt S R & Chandler K E (2007)The efficacy and tolerability of levetiracetam in pharmacoresistant epileptic dogs.Vet J PubMed.
  • Chandler K (2006)Canine epilepsy: what can we learn from human seizure disorders?Vet J172(2), 207-217 PubMed.  
  • Benedetti M S, Coupez R, Whomsley R, Nicolas J M, Collart P, Baltes E (2004)Comparative pharmacokinetics and metabolism of levetiracetam, a new anti-epileptic agent, in mouse, rat, rabbit and dog.Xenobiotica34(3), 281-300 PubMed.
  • Genton P, Van Vleymen B (2000)Piracetam and levetiracetam: close structural similarities but different pharmacological and clinical profiles.Epileptic Disord2(2), 99-105  PubMed.  
  • Isoherranen N, Yagen B, Soback S, Roeder M, Schurig V, Bialer M (2001)Pharmacokinetics of levetiracetam and its enantiomer (R)-alpha-ethyl-2-oxo-pyrrolidine acetamide in dogs.Epilepsia42(7), 825-830 PubMed.
  •  Isoherranen N, Roeder M, Soback S, Yagen B, Schurig V, Bialer M. (2000)Enantioselective analysis of levetiracetam and its enantiomer R-alpha-ethyl-2-oxo-pyrrolidine acetamide using gas chromatography and ion trap mass spectrometric detection.J Chromatogr B Biomed Sci Appl745(2), 325-332 PubMed.

Other sources of information

  • Dewey C W, Bailey K S, Badgely B L & Boothe D M (2007)Pharmokinetics of a single-dose intravenous levetiracetam administration in normal dogs.J Vet Int Med21(3), 592 (abstract).
  • Patterson E E, Leppik I E, O'Brien T D, Goel V, Fisher J E, Dunn A W, Cloyd J C (2007)Safety and pharmokinetics of intramuscular and intravenous levetiracetam in dogs.J Vet Int Med21(3), 592 (abstract).

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