Felis ISSN 2398-2950

Gentamicin

Contributor(s): Lauren Trepanier

Introduction

Name

  • Gentamicin.

Class of drug

  • Aminoglycoside antibiotic.

Description

Physical properties

  • Polar.

Uses

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Indications

  • The aminoglycosides as a class are more active against gram-negative bacteria, but some staphylococcal   Staphylococcus spp  and streptococcal   Streptococcus spp  (fecalis) species are sensitive.
  • All obligate anaerobic bacteria and many hemolytic streptococci are resistant.
  • When used for broad-spectrum coverage of serious infections, gentamicin is usually given in conjunction with a penicillin and/or metronidazole   Metronidazole  .
  • Aminoglycosides are more active in an alkaline environment.
  • Their use in domestic animals is limited by nephrotoxicity and less commonly, ototoxicity and neuromuscular blockade.
  • Microbial resistance is a concern, although some bacteria resistant to gentamicin may be susceptible to amikacin   Amikacin  .
    Ineffective in low oxygen sites, eg abscesses, exudates, because oxygen is required for ATP-dependent bacterial uptake.

Administration

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Pharmocokinetics

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Precautions

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Interactions

with other drugs

Nephrotoxic, ototoxic or neurotoxic agents (eg amphotericin B, cisplatin, furosemide, NSAIDs)
  • Increased risk of toxicity.

Beta-lactam antibiotics (eg penicillins, cephalosporins)

  • Aminoglycosides may be inactivated when mixedin vitro.
  • Synergism may occurin vivo.

Ticarcilin

  • Synergism may occurin vivo.

Non-depolarizing muscle relaxants (atracurium, pancuronium, tubocurarine, vecuronium)

  • May be enhanced by aminoglycosides.

Further Reading

Publications

Refereed papers

  • Mealey K Let al(1994)Nephrotoxicosis associated with topical administration of gentamicin in a cat.JAVMA204(12), 1919-1921.PubMed

Other sources of information

  • Based onSmall Animal Formulary.Tennant, Bryn (1999) 3rd edn. Cheltenham: BSAVA.

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