Felis ISSN 2398-2950

Epinephrine

Synonym(s): Adrenalin, adrenaline

Introduction

Name

  • Epinephrine.

Class of drug

  • Catecholamine with both alpha and beta adrenergic activity.

Description

Chemical name

  • 4-[1-hydroxy-2-(methylamino)ethyl]1,2 benzenediol.

Physical properties

  • Microcrystalline white powder.

Storage requirements

  • Epinephrine is sensitive to light and air, and is unstable in 5% dextrose.
  • In a tight container.
  • Protected from light.

Uses

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Indications

  • Primarily used in the treatment of anaphylaxis   Anaphylaxis  and in cardiac resuscitation.

Administration

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Pharmocokinetics

Precautions

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Interactions

with other drugs

  • Toxicity may occur if used with other sympathomimetic amines (eg isoproterenol) because of additive effects.
  • The effects of epinephrine may be potentiated by antihistamines (eg chlorpheniramine   Chlorphenamine  , diphenhydramine   Diphenhydramine  ) and thyroxine.
  • Propranolol   Propranolol  may block the beta effects of epinephrine, thus facilitating an increase in blood pressure.
  • Alpha blocking agents or diuretics may negate or diminish the pressor effects of epinephrine.
  • When epinephrine is used with drugs that sensitize the myocardium (eg halothane   Halothane  , high doses of digoxin   Digoxin  ) monitor for signs of arrhythmias.
  • Try to avoid the use of epinephrine in halothane-anesthetized animals   Halothane  .
  • Hypertension may result if epinephrine is used with oxytocic agents   Oxytocin  .

Adverse Reactions

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Further Reading

Publications

Other sources of information

  • Based onSmall Animal Formulary.Tennant, Bryn (1999) 3rd edn. Cheltenham: BSAVA.

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