Felis ISSN 2398-2950

Chloramphenicol

Contributor(s): Lauren Trepanier

Introduction

Name

  • Chloramphenicol.

Class of drug

  • Bacteriostatic antibiotic.
  • May be bactericidal at high concentrations.

Description

Chemical name

  • [R-(R*,R*)]-2,2-dichloro-N-[2-Hydroxy-1-(hydroxymethyl)-2-(4-nitrophenyl)ethyl]acetamide.

Molecular formula

  • C11H12Cl2N2O5.

Physical properties

  • Solution.
  • Tablets.

Storage requirements

  • Reconstituted sodium succinate injectable solution is stable for 30 days at room temperature and 6 months at -20°C.
  • Protect from light.

Uses

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Indications

Gram-positive infections

Gram-negative infections

Anaerobic infections

Other sensitive organisms

Administration

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Pharmocokinetics

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Precautions

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Interactions

with other drugs

Anticonvulsants (pentobarbital, phenobarbital, primidone and phenytoin)
  • Chloramphenicol is an irreversible inhibitor of hepatic cytochrome P450 dependent enzymes and so increases the plasma levels of these drugs   Pentobarbital    Phenobarbital    Phenytoin  .
  • Recovery from the inhibitory effects requires synthesis of new liver enzymes and can take up to 3 weeks.

Iron salts and Vitamin B12

  • Decreased hematologic response may be seen   Vitamin B12  .

Rifampicin

  • Accelerates the metabolism of chloramphenicol, thus decreasing serum levels.

Adverse Reactions

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Further Reading

Publications

Other sources of information

  • Based onSmall Animal Formulary.Tennant, Bryn (1999) 3rd edn. Cheltenham: BSAVA.

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