ISSN 2398-2950      

Ampicillin

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Introduction

Name

  • Ampicillin.

Class of drug

  • Aminopenicillin.

Description

Chemical name

  • [2S-[2-alpha,5-alpha,6-beta(S*)]]-6-(aminophenylacetyl)amino]-3,3-dimethyl-7-oxo-4-thia-1-azabicyclo[3.2.0]heptane-2-carboxylic acid.

Molecular formula

  • C16H19N3O4S.

Physical properties

  • Ampicillin sodium - water soluble for IV injection.
  • Ampicillin trihydrate - suspension for SQ or IM injection.

Storage requirements

  • <25°C.
  • Store tablets in a dry environment.
  • Do not store in freezer.
  • Can be stored in fridge (between 2-8°C).

Uses

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Indications

  • Ampicillin is an acid-stable, beta-lactamase-susceptible aminopenicillin active against many Gram-positive and negative organisms, but not against those that produce penicillinases, eg some E. coli  Escherichia coli  and Staphylococcus aureus  Staphylococcus aureus  .
  • The difficult Gram negative organisms, eg Pseudomonas spp.  Pseudomonas spp  and Klebsiella spp.  Klebsiella pneumoniae   are usually resistant.
  • Most obligate anaerobes are susceptible.
  • Ampicillin is excreted well in bile and urine.

Administration

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Pharmacokinetics

Precautions

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Interactions

with other drugs

  • Avoid the concurrent use of ampicillin with bacteriostatic antibiotics (eg erythromycin   Erythromycin  , chloramphenicol   Chloramphenicol  ).
  • Probenecid will decrease the renal tubular secretion of penicillin antibiotics and thus prolong their blood levels.

Aminoglycosides

  • Do not mix in the same syringe as aminoglycosides.

Adverse Reactions

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Further Reading

Publications

Refereed papers

Other sources of information

  • Based on Small Animal Formulary. Tennant, Bryn (1999) 3rd edn. BSAVA, UK.
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