Felis ISSN 2398-2950

Ureter: obstruction - surgical management

Synonym(s): Ureteral obstruction; obstructive ureterolithiasis

Contributor(s): Zoe Halfacree, Andrew Kent

Introduction

  • Ureteric obstruction Ureter: obstruction with uroliths is an increasingly recognized condition in the cat. This may be due to improved diagnostic techniques and awareness or due to increased incidence of calcium oxalate urolith formation.
  • Other causes of ureteric obstruction include:
    • Ureterolithiasis (approximately 98% are calcium oxalate) - most common.
    • Ureteric stricture (which is often due to previous ureteroliths).
    • Consolidated blood clots.
    • Iatrogenic (eg inadvertent ligation during ovariohysterectomy).
    • External trauma Ureter: trauma.
    • Neoplasia Ureter: neoplasia.
The procedures and perioperative care are highly specialized. Referral to a specialist with experience in these techniques is therefore advised.

Clinical signs

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Diagnosis

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Patient stabilization

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Surgical management

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Aftercare

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Complications

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Further Reading

Publications

Refereed Papers

  • Recent references from VetMed Resource and PubMed.
  • Garcia de Carellan Mateo A, Brodbelt D, Kulendra N & Alibhai H (2015) Retrospective study of the perioperative management and complications of ureteral obstruction in 37 cats. Vet Anaesth Analg 42, 570-579 PubMed.
  • Berent A C, Weisse C W, Todd K et al (2014) Technical and clinical outcomes of ureteral stenting in cats with benign ureteral obstruction: 69 cases (2006-2010). JAVMA 244, 559-576 PubMed.
  • Kulendra E, Kulendra N, Halfacree Z (2014) Management of bilateral ureteral trauma using ureteral stents and subsequent subcutaneous ureteral bypass devices in a cat. J Feline Med Surg 16(6), 536-540 PubMed.
  • Kulendra N J, Syme H, Benigni L et al (2014) Feline double pigtail ureteric stents for management of ureteric obstruction: short- and long-term follow-up of 26 cats. J Fel Med Surg 16, 985-991 PubMed.
  • Manassero M, Decambron A, Viateau V et al (2014) Indwelling double pigtail ureteral stent combined or not with surgery for feline ureterolithiasis: complications and outcome in 15 cases. J Fel Med Surg 16, 623-630 PubMed.
  • Horowitz C, Berent A, Weisse C et al (2013) Predictors of outcome for cats with ureteral obstructions after interventional management using ureteral stents of a subcutaneous ureteral bypass device. J Fel Med Surg 15,1052-1062 PubMed.
  • Berent A C, Weisse C W, Todd K L et al (2012) Use of a locking-loop pigtail nephrostomy catheters in dogs and cats: 20 cases (2004-2009). JAVMA 241, 3483-57 PubMed.
  • Nicoli S, Morello E, Martano M (2012) Double J ureteral stenting in nine cats with ureteral obstruction. Vet J 194, 60-65 PubMed.
  • Berent A C (2011) Ureteral obstructions in dogs and cats: a review of traditional and new interventional diagnostic and therapeutic options. J Vet Emerg Crit Care 21, 86-103 PubMed.
  • Roberts S F, Aronson  LR & Brown D C (2011) Post-operative mortality in cats after ureterolithotomy. Vet Surg 40, 438-443 PubMed.
  • Kyles A E, Hardie E M, Wooden B G (2005) Clinical, clinicopathological, radiographic, and ultrasonographic abnormalities in cats with ureteral calculi: 163 cases (1984-2002). JAVMA 226, 932-936 PubMed.
  • Hardie  EM & Kyles A E (2004) Management of ureteral obstruction. Vet Cin North Am 34, 989-1010.
  • Kyles A E, Hardie E M, Wooden B G (2005) Management and outcome of cats with ureteral calculi: 153 cases (1984-2002).  JAVMA 226, 937-944 PubMed.
  • Kyles A E, Stone E A, Gookin J et al (1998) Diagnosis and surgical management of obstructive ureteral calculi in cats: 11 cases (1993-1996). JAVMA 213, 1150-1156 PubMed.

Other sources of information


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