ISSN 2398-2950      

Therapeutics: respiratory system

ffelis

Bronchodilators

*Indicates drug not licensed for this use in this species.

  • Uses: for suspected bronchial narrowing due to bronchial secretion or bronchoconstriction.
  • When improved alveolar ventilation required.
  • Mild tracheobronchitis, bronchopneumonia   Pneumonia  , chronic pulmonary interstitial disease; chronic bronchitis   Chronic bronchitis  , smoke inhalation   Smoke inhalation  , allergic/anaphylactic reactions   Anaphylaxis  .
  • In truly allergic animals the use of bronchodilators may merely increase exposure to the allergen and other treatments aimed at reducing hyper-responsiveness (or desensitization) of the airways should be considered for long term management.

Methylxanthines

  • Inhibit phosphodiesterase and antagonize adenosine receptors.
  • Little effect on larger airways.
  • Stimulate respiratory center may increase tidal volume.
  • Most effective in reversible airway obstruction rather than chronic disease where pathological changes inhibit ability to induce bronchodilation, hence wide variation in response to these drugs.
  • Also central nervous system and mild myocardial stimulants, and mild diuretics.
  • Theophylline  Theophylline  , long-acting formulations 15-19 mg/kg once daily in the evening.

Adrenoceptor stimulants (sympathomimetics)

  • Beta 2-adrenoceptor stimulants.
  • Aerosol administration reduces cardiac effects, but may be impractical.
    Some cats tolerate aerosolization of beta-2 agonists very well and exhibit a good clinical response.
  • Also increase ciliary beating and are mucolytic.
  • Additional properties of beta agonists:
    • Inhibit increased vascular permeability, reduces local swelling.
    • Inhibit cell activation, including stabilization of mast cells.
  • Clenbuterol hydrochloride*.
  • Terbutaline sulfate*   Terbutaline  .
  • Albuterol* (for inhaled beta-2 agonist)   Salbutamol sulfate  .

Anti-allergic and inflammatories

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Mucolytics and expectorants

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Cough suppressants (Anti-tussives)

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Respiratory stimulants

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Further Reading

Publications

Refereed papers

  • Recent references from PubMed and VetMedResource.
  • Guenther-Yenke C L, McKiernan B C, Papich M G et al (2007) Pharmacokinetics of an extended-release theophylline product in cats. JAVMA 231 (6), 900-906 PubMed.

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