Felis ISSN 2398-2950

Therapeutics: parasiticide

Contributor(s): Dwight Bowman, Darren Peart, David Scarff, Lauren Trepanier

Endoparasiticides - Nematodes

Drugs for Nematodes
Benzimidazoles

  • Disrupt parasite energy metabolism by binding to tubulin (required for uptake of nutrients).
  • Doses may need to be repeated in kittens or when treating specific infections.
  • Effective against larval and adult roundworms, some also ovicidal.
  • Products containing benzimidazoles or probenzimidazoles are labeled 1-BZ.
  • Fenbendazole  Fenbendazole  : lungworm ( Aleurostrongylus  Aelurostrongylus abstrusus  ). GI nematodes - Toxocara catiToxascaris leonina  Toxascaris leonina  , Ancylostoma  Ancylostoma tubaeforme  and Taenia spp   Taenia taeniaeformis  (tapeworm) not effective against Dipylidium  Dipylidium caninum.
  • Mebendazole  Mebendazole  : gastrointestinal nematodes, Echinococcus and Taenia  Taenia taeniaeformis. Need to treat longer if treating tapeworms.
  • Praziquantel  Praziquantel  : preferred treatment for Echinococcus.
  • Febantel  Febantel  .

Imidazothiazoles

  • Nicotinic receptor agonists interfere with parasite nerve transmission   →   muscular paralysis and expulsion.
  • Restores depressed T-cell function.
    Low therapeutic index - toxic signs include salivation and muscle tremors.
  • Levamisole hydrochloride*   Levamisole  : lungworms ( Aleurostrongylus abstrususCapillaria aerophilia  Capillaria aerophila  ), immune stimulation, heartworm treatment (seek specialist advice). Unlicensed in cat.

Organophosphorous compounds

  • Dichlorvos  Dichlorvos  : roundworms, hookworms. Safer compounds are available.

Tetrahydropyrimidines

  • Interfere with parasite nerve transmission   →   neuromuscular paralysis.
  • Effective against adults and larval gastrointestinal roundworms.
  • Pyrantel embonate  Pyrantel embonate  .

Others

  • Piperazine  Piperazine  : modifies neurotransmission   →   relaxation and expulsion; for some roundworms, ie Toxocara  Toxocara cati  , Toxascaris  Toxascaris leonina  and Uncinaria; little activity against larval Toxocara in kittens; ineffective against lungworms or tapeworms. Toxic in cats with overdose (muscle fasciculations, ataxia, salivation).
  • Diethylcarbamazine: piperazine derivative that acts in nicotine-like manner causing paralysis. Used for heartworm prophylaxis in dogs and has ascaricide activity. Has been used to treat Spirocerea lupi at very high doses.

Endoparasiticides - Tapeworms

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Compound endoparasiticides

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Ectoparasiticides

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Systemic ectoparasiticides

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Topical ectoparasiticides

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Further Reading

Publications

Refereed papers

Other sources of information

  • Kunkle G (1997) An updated review of ectoparasiticide treatments in dogs and cats. Proceedings of the 7th European Association for Veterinary Pharmacology and Toxicology International Congress, Madrid, Spain. 6-10 July.
  • Lynn R C (1995) Antiparasitic Drugs. In: Georgis' Parasitology for Veterinarians. 6th edn. W B Saunders, Philadelphia. pp 247-292.
  • Courtney C H & Sundlof S F (1991) Veterinary Antiparasiteic Drugs. Am Assoc Vet Parasitol, University of Florida Publication SP96, Gainesville, Florida.


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