ISSN 2398-2950      

Therapeutics: parasiticide

ffelis

Introduction

  • Parasitic infections are common in cats: 
    • The most common ectoparasite infection is flea (Ctenocephalides felis). 
    • The most common endoparasite infection is ascarid (roundworm, Toxocara cati). 
    • Fleas and ticks are vectors of important diseases of cats. 
    • Around 50% cats with fleas or ear mites also have endoparasites (usually Toxocara cati). 
    • Cats with roundworm may be significantly more likely to harbor Taenia taeniaeformis than cats without ascarids. 
    • Cats play an insignificant role in Echinococcus multilocularis transmission, even in highly endemic regions. The zoonotic risk is very low but cannot be ruled out completely since shedding of E. multilocularis has been reported. 
  • Parasiticides are effective in the treatment and prevention many parasite infections. 
  • The duration of parasiticide coverage in cats currently falls far short of veterinary recommendations for treatment frequency. 
  • Any side-effects should be monitored and reported.
Some of these drugs are not licensed in veterinary species, and licensing varies across the world. It is therefore advisable to check with the local authority prior to administration.

Endoparasiticides - Nematodes

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Endoparasiticides - Cestodes 

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Endoparasiticides - Flukes/Trematodes

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Systemic ectoparasiticides 

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Surface ectoparasiticides

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Ectoparasiticides by dosage form (including combinations)

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Environmental control of fleas 

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Further Reading

Publications

Refereed papers

  • Recent references from PubMed and VetMedResource.
  • Lavan R, Armstrong R, Normile D, Vaala W (2020) Adherence to veterinary recommendations for ectoparasiticides purchased by cat owners in the USA. Parasites & Vectors 13, 541 PubMed.  
  • Lappin M R, Tasker S, Roura X (2020) Role of vector-borne pathogens in the development of fever in cats: 1. Flea-associated diseases. J Feline Med Surg 22, 31-39 PubMed.  
  • Lappin M R, Tasker S, Roura X (2020) Role of vector-borne pathogens in the development of fever in cats: 2. Tick- and sandfly-associated diseases. J Feline Med Surg 22, 41-48 PubMed.  
  • Mueller R S, Rosenkrantz W, Bensignor E, Karaś-Tęcza J, Paterson T, Shipstone M A (2020) Diagnosis and treatment of demodicosis in dogs and cats: Clinical consensus guidelines of the World Association for Veterinary Dermatology. Vet Dermatol 31, 5-27 PubMed
  • Rust M (2020) Recent advancements in the control of cat fleas. Insects 11, 668 PubMed.
  • Junquera P, Hosking B, Gameiro M, Macdonald A (2019) Benzoylphenyl ureas as veterinary antiparasitics. An overview and outlook with emphasis on efficacy, usage and resistance. Parasite 26, 26 PubMed
  • Merola V M, Eubig P A (2018) Toxicology of Avermectins and Milbemycins (Macrocyclic Lactones) and the Role of P-Glycoprotein in Dogs and Cats. Vet Clin North Am Small Anim Pract 48, 991-1012 PubMed.  
  • Wismer T, Means C (2018) Toxicology of Newer Insecticides in Small Animals. Vet Clin North Am Small Anim Pract 48, 1013-1026 PubMed
  • Giannelli A, Capelli G, Joachim A, Hinney B, Losson B, Kirkova Z, René-Martellet M, Papadopoulos E, Farkas R, Napoli E, Brianti E, Tamponi C, Varcasia A, Margarida Alho A, Madeira de Carvalho L, Cardoso L, Maia C, Mircean V, Mihalca A D, Miró G, Schnyder M, Cantacessi C, Colella V, Cavalera M A, Latrofa M S, Annoscia G, Knaus M, Halos L, Beugnet F, Otranto D (2017) Lungworms and gastrointestinal parasites of domestic cats: a European perspective. Int J Parasitol 47, 517-528 PubMed
  • Traversa d, Di Cesare A (2016) Diagnosis and management of lungworm infections in cats: Cornerstones, dilemmas and new avenues. J Feline Med Surg 16, 7-20 PubMed.  
  • Little S, Adolph C, Downie K, Snider T, Reichard M (2015) High Prevalence of Covert Infection With Gastrointestinal Helminths in Cats. J Am Anim Hosp Assoc 51, 359-364 PubMed.  
  • Pennisi M G, Hartmann K, Addie D D, Boucraut-Baralon C, Egberink H, Frymus T, Gruffydd-Jones T, Horzinek M C, Hosie M J, Lloret A, Lutz H, Marsilio F, Radford A D, Thiry E, Truyen U, Möstl K; European Advisory Board on Cat Diseases (2015) Lungworm disease in cats: ABCD guidelines on prevention and management. J Feline Med Surg 17, 626-636 PubMed.  
  • Takeuchi-Storm N, Mejer H, Al-Sabi M N, Olsen C S, Thamsborg S M, Enemark H L (2015) Gastrointestinal parasites of cats in Denmark assessed by necropsy and concentration McMaster technique. Vet Parasitol 214, 327-332 PubMed.   
  • Umhang G, Forin-Wiart M A, Hormaz V, Caillot C, Boucher J M, Poulle M L, Franck B (2015) Echinococcus multilocularis detection in the intestines and feces of free-ranging domestic cats (Felis S. catus) and European wildcats (Felis S. silvestris) from northeastern France. Vet Parasitol 214, 75-79 PubMed.   
  • Venco L, Marchesotti F, Manzocchi S J (2015) Feline heartworm disease: A'Rubik's-cube-like' diagnostic and therapeutic challenge. Vet Cardiol 17 Suppl 1, S190-201 PubMed
  • Beugnet F, Bourdeau P, Chalvet-Monfray K, Cozma V, Farkas R, Guillot J, Halos L, Joachim A, Losson B, Miró G, Otranto D, Renaud M, Rinaldi L (2014) Parasites of domestic owned cats in Europe: co-infestations and risk factors. Parasit Vectors 7, 291 PubMed
  • Knaus M, Rapti D, Shukullari E, Kusi I, Postoli R, Xhaxhiu D, Silaghi C, Hamel D, Visser M, Winter R, Rehbein S (2014) Characterisation of ecto- and endoparasites in domestic cats from Tirana, Albania. Parasitol Res 113, 3361-3371 PubMed.   
  • Gruffydd-Jones T, Addie D, Belák S, Boucraut-Baralon C, Egberink H, Frymus T, Hartmann K, Hosie M J, Lloret A, Lutz H, Marsilio F, Möstl K, Pennisi M G, Radford A D, Thiry E, Truyen U, Horzinek M C (2013) Giardiasis in cats: ABCD guidelines on prevention and management. J Feline Med Surg 15, 650-652 PubMed.   
  • Vo D T, Hsu W H, Abu-Basha E A, Martin R J (2010) Insect nicotinic acetylcholine receptor agonists as flea adulticides in small animals. J Vet Pharmacol Ther 33, 315-322 PubMed.  
  • Schwartz R D, Donoghue A R, Baggs R, Clark T, Partington C (2000) Evaluation of safety of fenbendazole in cats. Am J Vet Res 61, 330-332 PubMed.   
  • Bowman D D, Frongillo M K, Johnson R C, Beck K A, Hornbuckle W E, Blue J T (1991) Evaluation of praziquantel for treatment of experimentally induced paragonimiasis in dogs and cats. Am J Vet Res 52, 68-71 PubMed

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