ISSN 2398-2950      

Therapeutics: gastrointestinal system

ffelis

Antidiarrheal drugs

Adsorbents

  • Given by mouth to adsorb toxins (and note, possibly drugs)   →   prevent mucosal irritation and erosion.
  • See also treatment of poisoning   Poisoning: overview  .
  • Ispaghula husk* and sterculia   Sterculia  : absorb water   →   increase fecal mass.
  • Bismuth salts  Bismuth  , charcoal   Charcoal activated  and kaolin   Kaolin  : available in compound preparations, for non-specific diarrhea, variable in their absorption of different kinds of toxins.

Antidiarrheal drugs that reduce motility

  • Opioid derivatives   →   decrease intestinal motility but increase segmental contractions for treatment of non-specific acute and chronic diarrhea.
    May exacerbate diarrhea by increasing retention time of enterotoxins.
  • Metabolized in liver; can have sedative effect.
  • Loperamide*   Loperamide  .

Drugs/other used in the treatment/management of chronic diarrhea

  • Sulfasalazine*   Sulfasalazine  : for chronic colitis and maintenance of remission.
    Prolonged treatment with mesalazine, olsalazine or sulfasalazine can lead to irreversible keratoconjunctivitis sicca   Eye: keratoconjunctivitis sicca  .
    If canine dose of sulfasalazine used in cats this may induce salicylate poisoning.
  • Corticosteroids: to control inflammatory bowel disease   Inflammatory bowel disease: overview  , including lymphocytic-plasmacytic or eosinophilic infiltrates.
  • Probiotics   Probiotics and intestinal health  to help re-establish normal intestinal microflora.

Anti-emetics and emetics

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Laxatives

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Modulators of intestinal motility

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Antacids and ulcer-healing drugs

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Others

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Further Reading

Publications

Refereed papers

  • Recent references from PubMed and VetMedResource.
  • Hickman M A, Cox S R, Mahabir S et al (2008) Safety, pharmacokinetics and use of the novel NK-1 receptor antagonist maropitant (Cerenia) for the prevention of emesis and motion sickness in cats. J Vet Pharmacol Ther 31 (3), 220-229 PubMed.
  • Ho C M, Ho S T, Wang J J et al (2001) Effects of dexamethasone on emesis in cats sedated with xylazine hydrochloride. Am J Vet Res 62 (8), 1218-1221 PubMed.
  • Colby E D, McCarthy L E, Borison H L (1981) Emetic action of xylazine on the chemoreceptor trigger zone for vomiting in cats. J Vet Pharmacol Ther (2), 93-96 PubMed.

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