Felis ISSN 2398-2950

Therapeutics: endocrine system

Contributor(s): Claire Targett, Lauren Trepanier

Thyroid and antithyroid drugs

Thyroid drugs

  • Rarely used in treatment of hypothyroidism (which, if it occurs, is usually iatrogenic):
  • Liothyronine sodium*   Liothyronine  : used in T3 suppression test   T3 suppression test  .
  • Thyroxine sodium*   Levothyroxine  : for maintenance therapy (Levothyroxine sodium - drug of choice).

Antithyroid drugs

  • Carbimazole*   Carbimazole  : licensed for use in the UK, Prodrug of methimazole.
  • Methimazole  Methimazole  : available for use in the USA. Inhibits thyroid hormone synthesis but does not inhibit iodide uptake or release of pre-formed hormones.
  • Radioiodine  Hyperthyroidism: radio-iodine treatment  : treatment of choice for hyperthyroidism in cats in the US. Destroys overactive thyroid tissue; spared inactive (suppressed) normal tissue.
  • Iodine and iodide*   Povidone-iodine  : occasionally used short-term, pre-operatively to reduce vascularity of thyroid gland. Have transient effects to decrease thyroid hormone synthesis.
  • Propylthiouracil*:  mechanism of action similar to methimazole; not used because of high incidence of side-effects (hemolytic anemia, thrombocytopenia, acute hepatopathy) in cats.
  • Calcium Ipodate* : can provide short-term control of hyperthyroid signs in some cats; inhibits conversion of T4 to T3.
  • Propranolol  Propranolol  : non-selective beta blocker; also inhibits conversion of T4 to T3. May be used prior to thyroidectomy in cats intolerant of methimazole or carbimazole.

Corticosteroids

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Anabolic steroids

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Insulin and oral hypoglycemic agents

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Pituitary and hypothalamic hormones

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Other endocrine drugs

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Further Reading

Publications

Refereed papers
  • Recent references fromPubMed.
  • Weaver K E, Rozanski E A, Mahony O M, Chan D L & Freeman L M (2006)Use of glargine and lente insulins in cats with diabetes mellitus. J Vet Intern Med20(2), 234-248 PubMed.
  • Nelson R, Spann D, Elliott D, Brondos A & Vulliet R (2004)Evaluation of the oral antihyperglycemic drug metformin in normal and diabetic cats. J Vet Intern Med18(1), 18-24 PubMed.
  • Mazzaferro E M, Greco D S, Turner A S & Fettman M J (2003)Treatment of feline diabetes mellitus using an alpha-glucosidase inhibitor and a low-carbohydrate diet. J Feline Med Surg5(3), 183-189 PubMed.
  • Appleton D J et al(2002)Dietary chromium tripicolinate supplementation reduces glucose concentrations and improves glucose tolerance in normal-weight cats. J Feline Med Surg4(1), 13-25PubMed
  • Nelson R W (2000)Oral medication for treating diabetes mellitus in dogs and cats. JSAP41(11), 486-490PubMed
  • Behrend E N et al(1997)Glucocorticoid therapy - Pharmacology, indications, and complications. Vet Clin North Am Small Anim Pract27(2), 187-213.
  • Roth T L et al(1997)Effects of equine chorionic gonadotropin, human chorionic gonadotropin, and laparoscopic artificial insemination on embryo, endocrine and luteal characteristics in the domestic cat. Biol Reprod57(1), 165-171.

Other sources of information

  • Trepanier L A (2008)Medical management of hyperthyroidism.In: Kirk's Current Veterinary Therapy XIV, John Bonagura ed. Chapter 39, pp 175-179.


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