Felis ISSN 2398-2950
Contributor(s): Kyle Braund, Hill J, Lauren Trepanier
Drugs to control epilepsy
- Treatment should not follow a single seizure unless status epilepticus develops: investigation for underlying cause must precede diagnosis of epilepsy Epilepsy: idiopathic.
- Partial seizures more difficult to control than generalized, but no drug specifically indicated for either condition.
- Aim to suppress seizures by maintaining effective concentration of drug in the brain, minimizing side-effects.
- Drugs are mainly lipid soluble, distributed readily to all tissues so plasma levels reflect tissue concentrations.
- Single drug therapy preferable to multiple; most drugs are liver enzyme inducers → enhance metabolism of itself and other drugs.
- Monitor patient regularly for hepatotoxicity, withdrawal should always be gradual.
- Phenobarbitone Phenobarbital - drug of choice for epilepsy in cats.
- Diazepam* Diazepam. Can also be used orally in cats.
- Potassium bromide Potassium bromide. Not recommended in cats due to risk of eosinophilic airway disease.
Drugs for status epilepticus
- Repeated seizures without periods of consciousness → emergency requiring prompt treatment or → brain damage and death.
- If cause unknown, administer diazepam* Diazepam or midazolam Midazolam both of which cross blood-brain barrier quickly.
- Solvent (painful on IM injection) and oil-in-water preparations (painful and irritant on IV injection).
- Alternative: pentobarbitone sodium Pentobarbital and phenobarbitone sodium Phenobarbital.
- Recent references from PubMed and VetMedResource.
- Potschka H, Fischer A, Löscher W et al (2015) International veterinary task force consensus proposal: outcome of therapeutic interventions in canine and feline epilepsy. BMC Vet Res 11, 177 PubMed.
Other sources of information
- Plumb D C (1999) Veterinary Drug Handbook. 3rd edn. Iowa State University Press, Ames Iowa.