Felis ISSN 2398-2950

Therapeutics: anesthesia/analgesia

Contributor(s): Kyle Braund, Hill J, Lauren Trepanier, Jo Murrell

Introduction

  • This section will in the main cover the pharmacological effects of sedatives, general anesthetics, opioid analgesics, local anesthetics and euthanasia solutions.
  • General anesthesia can be considered a continuum from sedation to a deep plane of general anesthesia. A deeper plane of unconsciousness is generally associated with greater cardiovascular and respiratory system depression compared to light levels of sedation; therefore greater physiological support of these animals is required. It is recommended to use a balanced anesthesia technique where anesthetics are combined with analgesics to reduce the dose of anesthetic required and therefore limit cardiorespiratory depression. Premedication prior to general anesthesia is also recommended as part of a balanced anesthesia technique. This can be achieved by the administration of sedatives combined with opioid analgesics to increase the level of sedation that is achieved. Local analgesia techniques are being increasing used within veterinary anesthesia to improve peri-operative analgesia as part of a multi-modal analgesia technique.

Sedatives

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Analgesics

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Anesthetics

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Modifiers of neuromuscular transmission

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Drugs for euthanasia

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Further Reading

Publications

Refereed papers

  • Recent references from PubMed and VetMedResource.
  • Oliveira R L, Soares J H, Moreira C M et al (2019) The effects of lidocaine-prilocaine cream on responses to intravenous catheter placement in cats sedated with dexmedetomidine and either methadone or nalbuphine. Vet Anaesth Analg 46 (4), 492-495 PubMed.
  • Quandt J (2013) Analgesia, anesthesia, and chemical restraint in the emergent small animal patient. Vet Clin North Am Small Anim Pract 43 (4), 941-953 PubMed.

Other sources of information

  • Plumb D C (1999) Veterinary Drug Handbook. 3rd edn. Iowa State University Press, Ames Iowa.


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