Felis ISSN 2398-2950

Resistant bacterial infections

Synonym(s): Bacterial resistance, antimicrobial resistance

Contributor(s): Linda Horspool, Lauren Trepanier

What is bacterial resistance?

  • Resistance is not a new phenomenon:
    • Penicillin resistant infections were recognized shortly after benzylpenicillin (penicillin G Benzylpenicillin) came into widespread use in the late 1940s.
  • Resistance occurs when bacteria can both survive and maintain cell division in the presence of an antimicrobial agent.
  • Bacterial strains that display resistance to a variety of drugs (multiple drug resistant, MDR) are now widespread.
  • Worldwide infection treatment failure due to MDR has brought the use of antimicrobial agents in all species into question (AliAbadi et al, 2000).

What types of bacterial resistance are there?

This article is available in full to registered subscribers

Sign up now to purchase a 30 day trial, or Login

What threat do resistant bacteria pose to pet owners?

This article is available in full to registered subscribers

Sign up now to purchase a 30 day trial, or Login

Has antimicrobial resistance in small animals changed?

This article is available in full to registered subscribers

Sign up now to purchase a 30 day trial, or Login

When and how should antimicrobial agents be used?

This article is available in full to registered subscribers

Sign up now to purchase a 30 day trial, or Login

How do we make progress against resistant bacterial infections?

This article is available in full to registered subscribers

Sign up now to purchase a 30 day trial, or Login

Further Reading

Publications

Refereed papers

  • Recent references from VetMed Resource and PubMed.
  • Rybak M J (2006) Pharmacodynamics: relation to antimicrobial resistance. Am J Infect Control 34(5 Suppl 1):S38-45.
  • Fritsche T R, Jones R N (2005) Importance of understanding pharmacokinetic/pharmacodynamic principles in the emergence of resistances, including community-associated Staphylococcus aureus. J Drugs Dermatol 4(6 Suppl):s4-8.
  • Gillespie E L, Kuti J L,  Nicolau D P (2005) Pharmacodynamics of antimicrobials: treatment optimisation. Expert Opin Drug Metab Toxicol1(3), 351-361.
  • Guardabassi L, Loeber M E, Jacobson A (2004) Transmission of multiple antimicrobial-resistant Staphylococcus intermedius between dogs affected by deep pyoderma and their owners. Vet Microbiol98, 23-27 PubMed.
  • Lees P, AliAbadi F S, Toutain P L (2004) PK-PD modelling: an alternative to dose titration studies for antimicrobial drug dosage selection. RAJ PharmaMar, 175-80.
  • Toutain P L, Del Castillo J R E, Bousquet-Melou A (2003) The pharmacokinetic-pharmacodynamic approach to a rational dosage regimen for antibiotics. Res Vet Sci 73, 105-114.
  • Manian A (2003) Asymptomatic nasal carriage of mupirocin-resistant, methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) in a pet dog associated with MRSA infection in household contacts. Clin Infect Dis 36(2), e26-28 PubMed.
  • Prescott J F, Hanna W J B, Reid-Smith R, Drost K (2002) Antimicrobial drug use and resistance in dogs. Can Vet J 43, 107-116.
  • AliAbadi F S, Lees P (2000) Antibiotic treatment for animals: effect on bacterial population and dosage regime optimisation. Int J Antimicrob Agents 14, 307-313.
  • Normand E H, Gibson N R, Taylor D J, Carmichael S, Reid S W J (2000) Trends of antimicrobial resistance in bacterial isolates from a small animal referral hospital. Vet Rec 146, 151-155.
  • Tanner M A, Everett C L, Youvan D C (2000) Molecular phylogenetic evidence for noninvasive zoonotic transmission of Staphylococcus intermedius from a canine pet to a human. J Clin Microbiol 38, 1628-1631.
  • Schwartz S, Noble W C (1999) Aspects of bacterial resistance to antimicrobials used in veterinary dermatological practice. Vet Dermatol 10, 163176.
  • Grave K, Tanem H (1999) Compliance with short-term oral antibacterial drug treatment in dogs. J Small Anim Pract 40,158-162.
  • Pak S I, Han H R, Shimizu A (1999) Characterization of methicillin resistant Staphylococcus aureus isolated from dogs in Korea. J Vet Med Sci 61, 1013-1018 PubMed.
  • Sternberg S (1999) Antimicrobial resistance in bacteria from pets and humans. Acta Vet Scand 92(Suppl), 3750.
  • Tomlin J, Pead M J, Lloyd D H, Howell S, Hartmann F, Jackson H A, Muir P (1999) Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus infection in 11 dogs. Vet Rec 144,60-64 PubMed.
  • Devriese L A, Ieven M, Goossens H, Vandamme P, Pot B, Hommez J, Haesebrouck F (1996) Presence of vancomycin resistant enterococci in farm and pet animals. Antimicrob Agents Chemother 40, 2285-2287.
  • Kruse H, Hofshagen M, Thoresen S I, Bredal W P, Vollset I, Soli N E (1996) The antimicrobial susceptibility of Staphylococcus species isolated from canine dermatitis. Vet Res Comm 20, 205-.
  • Cefai C, Ashurst S, Owens C (1994) Human carriage of methicillin resistant Staphylococcus aureus linked with pet dog. Lancet 344, 539-540.
  • Scott G M, Thomson R, Malone-Lee J, Ridgway G L (1988) Cross-infection between animals and man: possible feline transmission of Staphylococcus aureus infection in humans? J Hosp Infect 12(1), 29-34.

Other sources of information


ADDED