ISSN 2398-2950      

Muscle relaxant: overview

ffelis

Introduction

  • General anesthesia is a triad consisting of narcosis (drug induced sleep), analgesia and muscle relaxation.
  • Muscle relaxation allows: precision surgery to be performed (eg intra-ocular surgery); prevents unexpected reflex movement; reduces traction needed to expose deep structures and therefore reduces tissue damage and post-operative discomfort; facilitates mechanical ventilation of lungs.
  • Movement during anesthesia is usually of 3 types:
    • Involuntary movement resulting from local (spinal) reflexes in response to noxious stimuli;
    • Tonus resulting from slow asynchronous discharge from ventral horn in spinal cord;
    • Muscular contraction as a myogenic response to direct traction (largely beyond pharmacological control).
If the movement is purposeful or in response to a painful stimulus, reassess the level of anesthesia.

1. General anesthesia

This article is available in full to registered subscribers

Sign up now to obtain ten tokens to view any ten Vetlexicon articles, images, sounds or videos, or Login

2. Drugs acting within spinal cord

This article is available in full to registered subscribers

Sign up now to obtain ten tokens to view any ten Vetlexicon articles, images, sounds or videos, or Login

3. Local anesthetic agents

This article is available in full to registered subscribers

Sign up now to obtain ten tokens to view any ten Vetlexicon articles, images, sounds or videos, or Login

4. Neuromuscular blocking agents (NMBAs)

This article is available in full to registered subscribers

Sign up now to obtain ten tokens to view any ten Vetlexicon articles, images, sounds or videos, or Login

Pharmacology – non-depolarizing NMBAs

This article is available in full to registered subscribers

Sign up now to obtain ten tokens to view any ten Vetlexicon articles, images, sounds or videos, or Login

Pharmacology – depolarizing NMBA

This article is available in full to registered subscribers

Sign up now to obtain ten tokens to view any ten Vetlexicon articles, images, sounds or videos, or Login

Further Reading

Publications

Refereed papers

  • Recent references from PubMed and VetMedResource.
  • Martin-Flores M, Sakai D M, Portela D A et al (2016) Prevention of laryngospasm with rocuronium in cats: a dose-finding study. Vet Anaesth Analg 43 (5), 511-518 PubMed.
  • Moreno-Sala A, Ortiz-Martínez R, Valdivia A G et al (2013) Use of neuromuscular blockade with rocuronium bromide for intubation in cats. Vet Anaesth Analg 40 (4), 351-358 PubMed.
  • Auer U, Mosing M (2006) A clinical study of the effects of rocuronium in isoflurane-anaesthetized cats. Vet Anaesth Analg 33 (4), 224-228 PubMed.
  • Appiah-Ankam J, Hunter J M (2004) Pharmacology of neuromuscular blocking drugs. Contin Educ Anaesth Crit Care & Pain 4 (1), 2–7 ScienceDirect.
  • Corletto F, Brearley J C (2003) Clinical use of mivacurium in the cat. Vet Anaesth Analg 30 (2), 93-94 PubMed.
  • Martinez E A (1999) Newer neuromuscular blockers. Is the practitioner ready for muscle relaxants? Vet Clin North Am Small Anim Pract 29 (3), 811-817 PubMed.
  • Forsyth S F, Ilkiw J E, Hildebrand S V (1990) Effect of gentamicin administration on the neuromuscular blockade induced by atracurium in cats. Am J Vet Res 51 (10), 1675-1678 PubMed.
  • Ilkiw J E, Forsyth S F, Hill T et al (1990) Atracurium administration, as an infusion, to induce neuromuscular blockade in clinically normal and temporarily immune-suppressed cats. JAVMA 197 (9), 1153-1156 PubMed.

Other sources of information

  • Flaherty D & Auckburally A (2016) Neuromuscular blocking agents. In: BSAVA Manual of Canine and Feline Anaesthesia and Analgesia. 3rd edn. Eds. Duke-Novakovski T, de Vries M, Seymour CJ BSAVA, Quedgeley (UK). Chapter 16.

Can’t find what you’re looking for?

We have an ever growing content library on Vetlexicon so if you ever find we haven't covered something that you need please fill in the form below and let us know!

 
 
 
 

To show you are not a Bot please can you enter the number showing adjacent to this field

 Security code