Felis ISSN 2398-2950

Larynx disease

Contributor(s): Andrew Gardiner, Philip K Nicholls, Gert ter Haar

Anatomy

Functional anatomy

  • The larynx is suspended by the hyoid apparatus and lies caudal to the base of the tongue and soft palate.
  • It plays an important role in regulation of airflow/respiration, voice production, coughing and swallowing.
  • The cartilages of the larynx are as follows:
    • Thyroid: forms ventral and lateral walls.
    • Cricoid: ring-shaped, wider dorsally; articulates with the paired arytenoids craniodorsally. Forms the dorsal wall.
    • Arytenoids: paired, with focal folds ventrally.
    • Epiglottis: leaf-shaped; forms cranial border of larynx.
  • Innervation is via the caudal laryngeal nerve, which arises from the recurrent laryngeal nerve and in turn the vagus. This nerve serves all of the intrinsic muscles of the larynx except the cricothyroideus, which is supplied by the cranial laryngeal nerve (also arises from vagus).
  • The rima glottid is the cranial opening of the larynx, and the narrowest part. The intrinsic muscles of the larynx determine the diameter of the rima glottidis by their actions of abduction or adduction of the laryngeal cartilages.
  • The most important laryngeal muscles are:
    • Cricoarytenoideus dorsalis: main abductor.
    • Thyroarytenoideus: main adductor.
  • Blood supply is via the cranial laryngeal artery, a branch of the external carotid, which courses alongside the cranial laryngeal nerve.

Clinical examination and diagnosis

This article is available in full to registered subscribers

Sign up now to purchase a 30 day trial, or Login

Specific conditions

This article is available in full to registered subscribers

Sign up now to purchase a 30 day trial, or Login

Further Reading

Publications

Refereed papers
  • Recent references from VetMed Resource and PubMed.
  • Taylor S S et al (2009) Laryngeal disease in cats: a retrospective study of 35 cases. J Feline Med Surg 11(12), 954-962 PubMed.
  • Rudorf H, Lane J G, Brown P J & Mackay A (1999) Ultrasonographic diagnosis of a laryngeal cyst in a cat. JSAP 40(6), 275-277.
  • Tasker S, Foster D J, Corcoran B M, Whitbread T & Kirby B M (1999) Obstructive inflammatory laryngeal disease in three cats. J Feline Med Surg 1, 53-59.
  • Holt D & Brockman D (1994) Diagnosis and management of laryngeal disease in the dog and cat. Vet Clin North Am 24, 855-871.
  • Harvey C E & O'Brien J A (1982) Surgical treatment of miscellaneous laryngeal conditions in dogs and cats. JAAHA 18, 557-562.
  • Hardie E M et al (1981) Laryngeal paralysis in three catsJAVMA 19, 879.

Other sources of information

  • Haar ter G (2016) Throat Anatomy and Physiology. In: Harvey RG, Haar ter G (eds) Ear, Nose and Throat Diseases of the Dog and Cat. 1st edn. London: CRC Press, Taylor & Francis Group.  pp 345-56.
  • Haar ter G (2016) Surgery of the Throat. In: Harvey RG, Haar ter G (eds) Ear, Nose and Throat Diseases of the Dog and Cat. 1st edn. London: CRC Press, Taylor & Francis Group. pp 475-90.
  • Venker-van Haagen A J (2000) Diseases of the throat. In: Textbook of Veterinary Internal Medicine. 5th edn. Eds S J Ettinger & E C Feldman. Philadelphia: W B Saunders. pp 1029-1031.


ADDED