Felis ISSN 2398-2950

Heart: disease - clinical investigation

Contributor(s): Yolanda Martinez Pereira, Mark Oyama

Introduction

  • Cardiac patients can present with a variety of clinical complaints such as presence of a murmur or an arrhythmia on auscultation Cardiac sounds: overview  Heart: dysrhythmia, syncope or pre-syncopal episodes Syncope, collapse, decreased exercise tolerance, signs of congestive heart failure Heart: congestive heart failure, unspecific signs (lethargy, decreased appetite, weight loss) or sudden death.
  • Clinical signs of left congestive heart failure usually include coughing, tachypnea, dyspnea, exercise intolerance and pleural effusion in cats Pleural effusion.
  • Clinical signs of right congestive heart failure usually include abdominal effusion, organomegaly (hepatomegaly Hepatomegaly, splenomegaly Abdominal organomegaly), distended jugular veins and occasionally pleural effusion in dogs.
  • Clinical signs of forward heart failure (in comparison to congestive heart failure) usually include lethargy, decreased exercise tolerance, hypotension, pale mucous membranes, exercise-induced collapse or syncope.
  •  Cardiac cachexia can occur as a result of heart failure, where cytokines are involved in gradual weight loss and worsening of body condition score Body condition scores.

History taking

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Physical examination

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Diagnostic tests

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Further Reading

Publications

Refereed papers

Other sources of information

  • Fuentes V L, Johnson L R, Dennis S (2010) BSAVA Manual of Canine and Feline Cardiorespiratory Medicine. BSAVA.
  • Tilley L P, Smith F W K, Oyama M A, Sleeper M M (2008) Manual of Canine and Feline Cardiology.Saunders Elsevier.
  • Martin M, B Corcoran B (2006) Notes on cardiorespiratory diseases of the dog and cat. Blackwell Publishing.
  • Kvart C, Haggstrom J (2002) Cardiac Auscultation and Phonocardiography in Dogs, Horses and Cats. TK i Uppsala.
  • Fox P, Sisson D, Moïse S (1999) Textbook of Canine and Feline Cardiology: Principles and clinical practice. Saunders.
  • Kittleson M D, Kienle R D (1998) Small Animal Cardiovascular Medicine. Multimedica.


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