ISSN 2398-2950      

Central venous pressure

ffelis

Introduction

  • Central venous pressure is the pressure measured within the lumen of the cranial vena cava within the thorax, just as it enters the right atrium.
  • The measured value is used to approximate the pressure within the right atrium.
    • It is a measure of right ventricular filling pressure.
    • It is a reflection of intravascular volume, cardiac function and venous compliance.
  • CVP is not interchangeable with pulmonary capillary wedge pressure (PCWP), which is an indicator of left atrial pressure. PCWP can be measured via a catheter (Swan-Ganz) placed into the pulmonary artery and wedged a branch of a pulmonary artery.
  • Specific indications for measurement of CVP include during resuscitation from hypovolemia, during diuresis and in patients with suspected right heart dysfunction.
  • Central venous pressure can be measured in millimeters of mercury (mm Hg) or in centimeters of water (cm H2O). To convert from mm Hg to cm H2O, (mm Hg x 1.36) = cm H2O

Materials and Supplies needed to perform central venous pressure measurement

  • A central venous catheter   Seldinger (over the wire) technique   is placed in the right or left jugular vein.
  • A length of IV extension tubing.
  • Three-way stopcock.
  • Manometer.
  • A 20 ml syringe filled with sterile 0.9% saline solution.

Performing Central Venous Pressure (CVP) Measurements

This article is available in full to registered subscribers

Sign up now to obtain ten tokens to view any ten Vetlexicon articles, images, sounds or videos, or Login

The CVP Waveform

This article is available in full to registered subscribers

Sign up now to obtain ten tokens to view any ten Vetlexicon articles, images, sounds or videos, or Login

CVP Normal Values

This article is available in full to registered subscribers

Sign up now to obtain ten tokens to view any ten Vetlexicon articles, images, sounds or videos, or Login

Use of CVP to guide fluid therapy

This article is available in full to registered subscribers

Sign up now to obtain ten tokens to view any ten Vetlexicon articles, images, sounds or videos, or Login

Causes of elevated CVP

This article is available in full to registered subscribers

Sign up now to obtain ten tokens to view any ten Vetlexicon articles, images, sounds or videos, or Login

Further Reading

Publications

Refereed papers

  • Recent references from PubMed and VetMedResource.
  • Waddell L S (2000) Direct blood pressure monitoring. Clin Tech Sm Anim Pract 15 (3), 111-118 PubMed.
  • Machon R G, Raffee M R & Robinson E P (1995) Central venous pressure measurements in the caudal vena cava of sedated cats. J Vet Emerg Crit Care (2), 121-129 VetMedResource.

Other sources of information

  • Monnet E (2002) Cardiovascular monitoring. In: The Veterinary ICU Book. Wingfield W E and Raffee M R, (editors). Teton NewMedia, Jackson Hole, WY, pp. 266-280.
  • Abbott J A (2001) Dilated cardiomyopathy. In: Veterinary Emergency Secrets, 2nd edition. Wingfield W E (editor), Hanley and Belfus, Philadelphia, pp 203211.
  • Selavka C M & Rozanski E (2001) Invasive blood pressure monitoring. In: Veterinary Emergency Secrets, 2nd edition. Wingfield W E (editor), Hanley and Belfus, Philadelphia, pp. 469-471.
  • Walton R S (2001) Shock. In: Veterinary Emergency Secrets, 2nd edition. Wingfield W E (editor), Hanley and Belfus, Philadelphia, pp. 2836.

Related Images

Can’t find what you’re looking for?

We have an ever growing content library on Vetlexicon so if you ever find we haven't covered something that you need please fill in the form below and let us know!