Felis ISSN 2398-2950

Biosecurity and infection control

Contributor(s): Sarah Binns, Karen Coyne, J Scott Weese

Introduction

  • Biosecurity are measures put in place to reduce the likelihood of the introduction of a disease into a country, region, or specific location, such as veterinary premises, or animal facility.
  • Infection control measures are designed to reduce the transmission of disease within and between locations once a disease is already present.
  • Biosecurity measures are often not specific to a particular disease or infectious agent. They tend to be a collection of general measures that should be useful for prevention of most infectious agents of concern. Specific biosecurity measures for individual pathogens may be applied as needed. 
  • Both dog and cat diseases are transmitted in various ways including direct and indirect contact, horizontal (direct or indirect transmission between animals of the same generation) and vertical transmission (transmission between dam and offspring either before or during birth).
  • Direct contact is of particular significance for fragile pathogens that are unable to survive for extended periods outside the host; examples include feline leukemia virus (FeLV) Feline leukemia virus and feline immunodeficiency virus (FIV) Feline immunodeficiency virus.
  • Indirect contact between animals occurs if infection is acquired from contaminated environments or a vector.
  • Contaminated environments might include bedding, grooming kits, bowls, litter trays, medical equipment and contact with feces.
  • Vectors may be biological; these are organisms that may not cause disease in their own right but may convey infectious organisms from one host to another. A number of significant canine diseases are transmitted by biological vectors; examples include sandflies that transmit leishmaniosis Leishmaniasis, ticks that transmit Lyme disease, and mosquitoes that can carry Dirofilaria immitis (heartworm Feline cardiopulmonary dirofilariasis). Feline diseases transmitted by biological vectors include feline infectious anemia (FIA), caused by Mycoplasma haemofelis, which is transmitted by fleas.
  • People may also act as vectors by transporting infection on their skin, clothing or shoes. Examples include canine parvovirus (CPV), a virus which is highly persistent outside the host.

Biosecurity measures

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Infection control

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General principles of infection control

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Infection control at premises level and veterinary practices

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Infection control at regional or national level

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Further Reading

Publications

Refereed papers

  • Recent references from VetMed Resource and PubMed.
  • Carruthers H (2009) Disease surveillance in small animal practice. In Practice31,356-358.
  • Hosie M J, Addie D, Belák S, Boucraut-Baralon C, Egberink H, Frymus T, Gruffydd-Jones T, Hartmann K, Lloret A, Lutz H, Marsilio F, Pennisi M G, Radford A D, Thiry E, Truyen U, Horzinek M C (2009) Feline immunodeficiency. ABCD guidelines on prevention and management. J Feline Med Surg 11(7), 575-584 PubMed.
  • Lutz H, Addie D, Belák S, Boucraut-Baralon C, Egberink H, Frymus T, Gruffydd-Jones T, Hartmann K, Hosie MJ, Lloret A, Marsilio F, Pennisi MG, Radford AD, Thiry E, Truyen U, Horzinek M C (2009) Feline leukaemia. ABCD guidelines on prevention and management. J Feline Med Surg 11(7), 565-574 PubMed.
  • Petersen C A, Barr S C (2009) Canine leishmaniasis in North America: emerging or newly recognized? Vet Clin North Am Small Anim Pract 39(6), 1065-1074 PubMed.
  • Benedict  K M & Morley S (2008) Characteristics of biosecurity and infection control programs at veterinary teaching hospitals.  JAVMA 233, (5), 767-773 PubMed
  • Wright J G, Jung S, Holman RC, Marano N N, McQuiston J H (2008) Infection control practices and zoonotic disease risks among veterinarians in the United States. JAVMA 232(12), 1863-1872 PubMed.
  • Coyne K P, Edwards D, Radford A D, Cripps P, Jones D, Wood J L, Gaskell R M, Dawson S (2007) Longitudinal molecular epidemiological analysis of feline calicivirus infection in an animal shelter: a model for investigating calicivirus transmission within high-density, high-turnover populations. J Clin Microbiol 45(10), 3239-3244 PubMed.
  • England J J (2002) Biosecurity: safeguarding your veterinarian:client: patient relationship. Vet Clin Food Anim 18, 373-378 PubMed.
  • French N P, Gemmell N J & Buddle B M (2007) Advances in biosecurity to 2010 and beyond: towards integrated detection, analysis and response to exotic pest invasions. N Z Vet J 55(6), 255-263 PubMed.
  • ONeil B D (2007) Advances in animal disease surveillance and biosecurity. N Z Vet J 55(6), 254 PubMed.
  • Morley P S (2002) Biosecurity of veterinary practices. Vet Clin Food Anim 18, 133-155 PubMed.
  • Polton G & Elwood C (2008) Keeping it clean: further lessons for infection control. In Practice 30, 167-169.
  • Radford A D, Addie D, Belák S, Boucraut-Baralon C, Egberink H, Frymus T, Gruffydd-Jones T, Hartmann K, Hosie M J, Lloret A, Lutz H, Marsilio F, Pennisi M G, Thiry E, Truyen U, Horzinek M C (2009) Feline calicivirus infection. ABCD guidelines on prevention and management. J Feline Med Surg 11(7), 556-564 PubMed.
  • Wenzel J G & Nusbaum K E (2007) Veterinary expertise in biosecurity and biological risk assessment. JAVMA 230(10), 1476-1480 PubMed.
  • Watkins R E, Eagleson S, Hall R G, Dailey L & Plant A J (2006) Approaches to the evaluation of outbreak detection methods. BMC Public Health 6, 263-273. 
  • Weese J S (2004) Barrier precautions, isolation protocols, and personal hygiene in veterinary hospitals. Vet Clin Equine 20(3), 543-559 PubMed.  
  • Smith D R (2002) Epidemiologic tools for biosecurity and biocontainment. Vet Clin Food Anim 18, 157-175 PubMed.
  • Weese J S, Peregrine A S & Armstrong J (2002) Occupational health and safety in small animal veterinary practice: part I nonparasitic zoonotic diseases. Can Vet J 43, 631-636 PubMed.
  • Wilson D W & Beers P T (2001) Global trade requirements and compliance with World Trade Organization agreements: the role of tracing animals and animal products. Rev Sci Tech 20(2), 379-384 PubMed.

Other sources of information


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