Felis ISSN 2398-2950

Uveitis: viral

Contributor(s): Dennis E Brooks, Grant Roxburgh, David Williams

Introduction

  • Cause: viral uveitis is one of the most common causes of uveitis in the cat, with 4 viruses being especially prevalent - Feline Infectious Peritonitis virus (FIP Feline corona virus: FIP), Feline Leukemia virus (FeLV Feline leukemia virus), Feline Immunodeficiency virus (FIV Feline immunodeficiency virus) and (probably less common) Feline Herpes virus (FHV Feline herpes virus: feline rhinotracheitis virus ).
  • Signs: varied.
  • Diagnosis: difficult - may require paracentesis of aqueous, serology looking for rising antibody titer, histopathology.
  • Treatment: topical anti-inflammatory medication.
  • Prognosis: guarded.

Pathogenesis

Etiology

Pathophysiology

  • Complex - involves immune reaction of the uvea, which acts as an accessory lymph node - hypersensitivity type III implicated with FIP, causing pyogranulomatous vasculitis.
  • Most other causes involve type II hypersensitivity and uveal sensitization, so that immune-mediated uveitis is the most common etiology, and is often idiopathic.

Timecourse

  • Often acute onset, but chronic timecourse.

Diagnosis

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Treatment

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Prevention

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Outcomes

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Further Reading

Publications

Refereed papers

  • Recent references from PubMed and VetMedResource.
  • Maggs D J (2009) Feline uveitis. An 'intraocular lymphadenopathy'. J Fel Med Surg 11 (3), 167-182 PubMed.
  • Lappin M R (2000) Feline infectious uveitis. J Feline Med Surg (3), 159-163 PubMed.
  • Heider H J, Pox C, Loesenbeck G et al (1998) Ophthalmological findings in association with different virus infections in the cat. European Journal of Companion Animal Practice (2), 35-42 VetMedResource.
  • Chavkin M K, Lappin M R, Powell C C et al (1992) Seroepidemiologic and clinical observations of 93 cases of uveitis in cats. Progress in Veterinary & Comparative Ophthalmology (1), 29-36 VetMedResource.
  • Davidson M G, Nasisse M P, English R V et al (1991) Feline anterior uveitis - a study of 53 cases. JAAHA 27 (1), 77-83 VetMedResource.
  • Peiffer R L Jr. & Wilcock B P (1991) Histopathologic study of uveitis in cats - 139 cases (1978-1988). JAVMA 198 (1), 135-138 PubMed.

Other sources of information

  • Petersen-Jones S & Crispin S (2002) BSAVA Manual of Small Animal Ophthalmology. 2nd edn. British Small Animal Veterinary Association. ISBN 0 905214 54 4


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