Felis ISSN 2398-2950

Systemic lupus erythematosus

Synonym(s): SLE

Contributor(s): Michael Day

Introduction

  • Multisystemic autoimmune rare disease.
  • Cause: autoantibodies produced against self antigens.
  • Signs: depression, stiffness, glomerulonephropathy, neurological disease.
  • Diagnosis: hematology, ANA titer, histopathology.
  • Treatment: immunosuppressive therapy.
  • Prognosis: guarded.

Pathogenesis

Etiology

  • Unknown but probably multifactorial.
  • Genetic, viral and hormonal influences have been implicated.

Pathophysiology

  • Loss of self tolerance   →   autoantibodies and cytotoxic lymphocytes acting against 'self'   →   tissue pathology.
  • Autoantibodies react with self antigens in multiple organ systems.
  • Direct effects caused by antibody binding to surface antigens:
    • Hemolysis of red cells   →   anemia.
    • Destruction of platelets   →   thrombocytopenia.
    • Damage to white cells   →   leucopenia.
  • Indirect effects due to circulating antibody-antigen complexes:
    • Deposition in glomeruli   →   glomerulonephropathy   →   CRF and protein loss   →   hypoproteinemia Hypoproteinemia.
    • Deposition in basement membrane in epithelium   →   mucocutaneous junction lesions.
    • Circulating complexes can   →   macrophage and complement activation.
  • Cytotoxic lymphocyte infiltration of tissue.
  • Interface dermatitis.
  • Synovitis.

Timecourse

  • Weeks to months.

Diagnosis

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Treatment

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Outcomes

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Further Reading

Publications

Refereed papers

  • Recent references from PubMed and VetMedResource.
  • Shaw S E, Birtles R J & Day M J (2001) Arthropod-transmitted infectious diseases of cats. J Feline Med Surg​ (4), 193-209 PubMed.
  • Lusson D, Billiemaz B & Chabanne J L (1999) Circulating lupus anticoagulant and probable systemic lupus erythematosus in a cat. J Feline Med Surg​ (3), 193-196 PubMed.
  • Vitale C B, Ihrke P J, Gross T L et al (1997) Systemic lupus erythematosus​ in a cat - fulfillment of the American Rheumatism Association criteria with supportive skin histopathology. Vet Dermatol (2), 133-138 VetMedResource.
  • Pederson N C & Barlough J E (1991) Systemic erythematosus in the cat. Feline Prac 19 (3), 5-13 VetMedResource.


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