Felis ISSN 2398-2950

Stomach: neoplasia

Synonym(s): Malignant gastric tumor, Benign gastric tumor

Contributor(s): Philip K Nicholls, Marion O'Leary, Isabelle Desmas-Bazelle

Introduction

  • Gastric neoplasia is not common in the cat, and non-lymphoid tumors are rare.
  • Lymphoma (often B-cell), adenocarcinoma, undifferentiated carcinoma, leiomyosarcoma, carcinoid, mast cell tumor, gastrointestinal stromal tumor (GIST) and extramedullary plasmacytoma have been reported. Benign polyps and leiomyoma (rare) are reported also.
  • Cause: possibly Helicobacter and chronic gastritis.
  • Signs: most commonly vomition, anorexia and weight loss.
  • Diagnosis: radiography, endoscopy and biopsy, ultrasonography, CT scan.
  • Treatment: surgical resection and chemotherapy.
  • Prognosis: Benign lesions have good prognosis. Lymphoma may have fair prognosis, but carcinoma typically a poor prognosis.

Pathogenesis

Etiology

  • Various causes (eg dietary) in humans, but no clear evidence of risk factors in the cat.
  • Helicobacter Helicobacter spp has been associated with feline gastric neoplasia, but causality is not proven.
  • Lymphoplasmacytic gastroenteritis Gastroenteritis has been suggested to be a pre-lymphomatous lesion.
  • C-kit mutation likely to play a role in tumorigenesis of GISTs.

Pathophysiology

  • Tumor invasive or protruding into lumen.
  • Altered gastric motility.
  • Possible obstruction.
  • Possible bleeding and subsequent anemia.
  • Rarely perforation and acute septic peritonitis Peritonitis.

Timecourse

  • Weeks to months.

Diagnosis

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Treatment

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Outcomes

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Further Reading

Publications

Refereed papers

  • Recent references from PubMed and VetMedResource.
  • Marolf A J, Bachand A M, Sharber J et al (2015) Comparison of endoscopy and sonography findings in dogs and cats with histologically confirmed gastric neoplasia. J Small Anim Pract 56 (5), 339-344 PubMed.
  • Gustafson T L, Villamil A, Taylor B E et al (2014) A retrospective study of feline gastric lymphoma in 16 chemotherapy-treated cats. J Am Anim Hosp Assoc 50 (1), 46-52 PubMed.
  • Terragni R, Vignoli M, Rossi F et al (2012) Stomach wall evaluation using helical hydro-computed tomography. Vet Radiol Ultrasound 53 (4), 402-405 PubMed.
  • Morini M, Gentilini F, Pietra M et al (2011) Cytological, immunohistochemical and mutational analysis of a gastric gastrointestinal stromal tumour in a cat. J Comp Pathol 145 (2-3), 152-157 PubMed.
  • Pohlman L M, Higginbotham M L, Welles E G et al (2009) Immunophenotypic and histologic classification of 50 cases of feline gastrointestinal lymphoma. Vet Pathol 46 (2), 259-268 PubMed.
  • Bridgeford E C, Marini R P, Feng Y et al (2008) Gastric Helicobacter species as a cause of feline gastric lymphoma: a viable hypothesis. Vet Immunol Immunopathol 123 (1-2), 106-113 PubMed.
  • Dennis M M, Bennett N, Ehrhart E J (2006) Gastric adenocarcinoma and chronic gastritis in two related Persian cats. Vet Pathol 43 (3), 358-362 PubMed.
  • Rossmeisl J H Jr., Forrester S D, Robertson J L et al (2002) Chronic vomiting associated with a gastric carcinoid in a cat. J Am Anim Hosp Assoc 38 (1), 61-66 PubMed.
  • Yamazaki Y, Aono I, Ohya T et al (2002) Gastroduodenal adenocarcinomas and rectal adenoma in a cougar (Felis concolor) infected with Helicobacter-like organisms and spirochetes. J Vet Med Sci 64 (2), 149-153 PubMed.
  • Gualtieri M, Monzeglio M G, Scanziani E (1999) Gastric neoplasia. Vet Clin North Am Small Anim Pract 29 (2), 415-440 VetMedResource.
  • Zikes C D, Spielman B, Shapiro W et al (1998) Gastric extramedullary plasmacytoma in a cat. J Vet Intern Med 12 (5), 381-383 PubMed.
  • Yanai T, Masegi T, Hosoi M et al (1994) Gastric adenocarcinoma in a cougar (Felis concolor). J Wildl Dis 30 (4), 603-608 PubMed.
  • Martin H D, Lewis D D, Lin S L et al (1985) Gastric mast cell tumor in a cougar. J Am Vet Med Assoc 187 (11), 1258-1260 PubMed.
  • Turk M A, Gallina A M & Russell T S (1981) Non-hematopoietic gastrointestinal neoplasia in cats: A retrospective study of 44 cases. Vet Pathol 18 (5), 614-620 PubMed.
  • Weller R E & Hornof W J (1979) Gastric malignant lymphoma in two cats. Mod Vet Pract 60 (9), 701-704 PubMed.

Other sources of information

  • Vail D M, Withrow S J, Page R L (2013) Cancer of the gastrointestinal tract. In: Small Animal Clinical Oncology. Eds S J Withrow and E G MacEwen. 5th edn. Philadelphia: W B Saunders Co. pp 402-404.
  • Head K W, Else R W & Dubielzig R R (2002) Tumors of the alimentary tract.  In: Meuten DJ (Ed.) Tumors in Domestic Animals. 4th Edn. Iowa State Press.
  • Twedt D A (1994). Chapter 38. Diseases of the stomach.  In: Sherding RG (Ed) The cat - diseases and clinical management. Churchill-Livingstone. New York. pp1181-1210.


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