Felis ISSN 2398-2950

Salmonellosis

Contributor(s): Kenneth Simpson

Introduction

  • Zoonotic enteric disease, usually subclinical infection - adult cats show a high natural resistance to infection unless intercurrent disease +/- immunosuppression; chronic carriers represent public health risk, particularly to the elderly, young and immunocompromized.
  • Signs: subclinical (asymptomatic); enterocolitis; bacteremia.
  • Diagnosis: bacterial isolation; fecal analysis, blood culture.
  • Treatment: symptomatic - use of antibiotics confined to severe cases.
  • Prognosis: good - in self-limiting disease; poor - bacteremic cases and chronic carriers.

Pathogenesis

Etiology

Predisposing factors

General

  • Suppressed immune system.
  • Unhygienic, crowded conditions.
  • Stress.

Specific

  • In US, ingestion of song birds dying of S. typhimurium- "Songbird fever" (depression, anorexia, fever, diarrhea, vomiting @ 10% mortality.)
  • Processed pet foods contaminated by rodents, insects, birds.
  • Unprocessed, improperly cooked food from infected sources.
  • Antimicrobial therapy in catteries, 3 forms:
    • Enterocolitis.
    • Subclinical.
    • Bacteremic.

Pathophysiology

  • Ingestion of organism   →   pharyngeal lymphoid tissue, small intestine, colon (also possibly lymph nodes, liver and spleen)   →   invasion of epithelial cells   →   inflammatory response   →   enterocolitis.
  • Bacteremia and endotoxemia can also occur.
  • Shedding of organism occurs for 3-6 weeks depending on organism and host response, carrier state may establish after 3-4 weeks.

Timecourse

  • 3-5 days following ingestion or in carrier following stress.

Epidemiology

  • Salmonella in contaminated food or water   →   ingestion   →   transmitted cat to cat.
  • Risk of ensuing disease depends on age, immune status, size of inoculum.

Diagnosis

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Treatment

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Prevention

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Outcomes

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Further Reading

Publications

Refereed papers

  • Recent references from PubMed and VetMedResource.
  • Philbey A W, Brown F M, Mather H A et al (2009) Salmonellosis in cats in the United Kingdom: 1955 to 2007. Vet Rec 164 (4), 120-122 PubMed.
  • Foley J E, Orgad U, Hirsh D C et al (1999) Outbreak of fatal salmonellosis in cats following use of a high-titer modified-live panleukopenia virus vaccine. JAVMA 214 (1), 67-70 PubMed.
  • No authors listed (1997) Salmonellosis. JSAP 38 (8), 375-376 VetMedResource.
  • Low J C, Tennant B, Munro D (1996) Multiple-resistant Salmonella typhimurium DT104 in cats. Lancet 348 (9039), 1391 PubMed.
  • McDonough P L & Simpson K W (1996) Diagnosing emerging bacterial infections - salmonellosis, campylobacteriosis, clostridial toxicosis, and helicobacteriosis. Semin Vet Med Surg (Small Anim) 11 (3), 187-197 PubMed.
  • Wall P G, Threllfall E J, Ward L R et al (1996) Multiresistant Salmonella typhimurium DT104 in cats - a public health risk. Lancet 348 (9025), 471 PubMed.
  • Wall P G, Davis S, Threlfall E J et al (1995) Chronic carriage of multidrug resistant Salmonella typhimurium in a cat. JSAP 36 (6), 279-281 PubMed.
  • Reilly G A, Bailie N C, Morrow W T et al (1994) Feline stillbirths associated with mixed Salmonella typhimurium and leptospira infection. Vet Rec 135 (25), 608 PubMed.
  • Rodriguez C O Jr., Moon M L, Leib M S (1993) Salmonella choleraesuis pneumonia in a cat without signs of gastrointestinal tract disease. JAVMA 202 (6), 953-955 PubMed.
  • Pelzer K D (1989) Salmonellosis. JAVMA 195 (4), 456-463 PubMed.


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