ISSN 2398-2950      

Rhinitis

ffelis
Contributor(s):

Phil Nicholls

Nicki Reed


Introduction

  • Cause: inflammation of nasal passages.
    • Usually sequelae to viral upper respiratory tract infection.
    • May be seen in association with inhaled allergens.
  • Signs: sneezing, nasal discharge.
  • Diagnosis: signs, rhinoscopy, radiography, biopsy.
  • Treatment: treat underlying cause and symptomatic management.
  • Prognosis: guarded for resolution of signs.

Pathogenesis

Etiology

Predisposing factors

General

  • Depends on cause.

Pathophysiology

  • Etiological agent   →   damages nasal mucosa   →   inflammatory reaction.
  • Damage to normal structure and immunological function of nasal mucosa   →   reduced defenses   →   bacterial overgrowth.
  • Inflammation and discharge often occlude aperture between frontal sinus and nasal cavity   →   frontal sinusitis.
  • Anatomical defects, neoplasia or foreign body   →   secondary infection.
  • Viral rhinitis   →   secondary bacterial infection.
  • Initially acute inflammation (may)   →   chronic hyperplasia of nasal mucosa   →   chronic rhinitis.
  • Exposure to allergen/irritant   →   inflammatory reaction.

Timecourse

Diagnosis

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Treatment

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Prevention

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Outcomes

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Further Reading

Publications

Refereed papers

  • Recent references from PubMed and VetMedResource.
  • Reed N & Gunn-Moore D (2012) Nasopharyngeal disease in cats 1. Diagnostic investigation. J Feline Med Surg 14 (5), 306-315 PubMed.
  • Reed N & Gunn-Moore D (2012) Nasopharyngeal disease in cats 2. Specific conditions and their management. J Feline Med Surg 14 (5), 317-326 PubMed.
  • Maggs D J (2010) Antiviral therapy for feline herpesvirus infections. Vet Clin North Am Small Anim Pract 40 (6), 1055-62 PubMed.
  • Scherk M (2010) Snots and snuffles. Rational approach to chronic feline upper respiratory syndromes. J Feline Med Surg 12 (7), 548-557 PubMed.
  • Malik R, Lessels N S, Webb S et al (2009) Treatment of feline herpesvirus-1 associated disease in cats with famciclovir and related drugs. J Feline Med Surg 11 (1), 40-48 PubMed
  • Radford A D, Addie D, Belák S et al (2009) Feline calicivirus infection: ABCD guidelines on the prevention and management. J Feline Med Surg 11 (7), 556-564 PubMed.
  • Thiry E, Addie D, Belák S et al (2009) Feline herpesvirus infection: ABCD guidelines on the prevention and management. J Feline Med Surg 11 (7), 547-555 PubMed.
  • Demko J L & Cohn L A (2007) Chronic nasal discharge in cats: 75 cases (1993-2004). JAVMA 230 (7), 1032-1037 PubMed.
  • Veir J K, Lappin M R & Dow S W (2006) Evaluation of a novel immunotherapy for treament of chronic rhinitis in cats. J Feline Med Surg (6), 400-411 PubMed.
  • Johnson L R, Foley J E, De Cock H E et al (2005) Assessment of infectious organisms associated with chronic rhinosinusitis​ in cats. Feline Med Surg 227 (4), 579-85 PubMed.
  • Henderson S M, Bradley K, Day M J et al (2004) Investigation of nasal disease in the cat - a retrospective study of 77 cases. J Feline Med Surg (4), 245-257 PubMed.
  • Lamb C R, Richbell S & Mantis P (2003) Radiographic signs in cats with nasal disease. J Feline Med Surg (4), 227-235 PubMed.
  • Michiels L, Day M J, Snaps F et al (2003) A retrospective study of non-specific rhinitis in 22 cats and the value of nasal cytology and histopathology. J Feline Med Surg (5), 279-285 PubMed.
  • Allen H S, Broussard J & Noone K (1999) Nasopharyngeal disease in cats: a retrospective study of 53 cases (1991-1998). JAAHA 35 (6), 457-461 PubMed.
  • Van Pelt D R & Lappin M R (1994) Pathogenesis and treatment of feline rhinitis. Vet Clin N Am Small Anim Pract 24 (5), 807-823 PubMed.
  • Norsworthy G D (1993) Surgical treatment of chronic nasal discharge in 17 cats. Vet Med 88 (6), 526-537 VetMedResource.
  • Cape L (1992) Feline idiopathic chronic rhinosinusitis: A retrospective study of 30 cases. JAAHA 28 (2), 149-155 VetMedResource.
  • Holmberg D L, Fries C, Cockshutt J et al (1989) Ventral rhinotomy in the dog and cat. Vet Surg 18 (6), 446-449 PubMed.
  • Anderson G I (1987) The treatment of chronic sinusitis in six cats by ethmoid curettage and autogenous fat graft sinus ablation. Vet Surg 16 (2), 131-134 PubMed.

Other sources of information

  • Sturgess K (2013) Chronic nasal discharge and sneezing in cats. In Practice 35, 67-74.
  • Sykes J E & Malik R (2012) Cryptococcosis. In: Green C E (ed) Infectious diseases of the Dog and Cat. 4th edn. St Louis, Missouri: Elsevier Saunders pp 621-623.
  • Johnson L R (2008) Rhinitis in the cat. In: Bonagura J & Twedt D (eds) Kirk's Current Veterinary Therapy Vol XIV Philadelphia: Elsevier Saunders, pp 616-618.
  • Sturgess K (2005) Rhinoscopy in cats. UK Vet 10, 50-58.
  • McCarthy T (2005) Rhinoscopy: the diagnostic approach to chronic nasal disease. In: McCarthy T C (ed). Veterinary endoscopy for the small animal practitioner. St Louis, Missouri: Elsevier, pp137-200.

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Nasal discharge in cats

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