ISSN 2398-2950      

Retina: hemorrhage

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Introduction

  • Retinal hemorrhage may be a sign of (or sequel to) concurrent intraocular disease. Alternatively it may be an indication of a systemic bleeding disorder.
  • Cause:
  • Signs: intra-retinal, subretinal or pre-retinal hemorrhage.
  • Diagnosis: ophthalmoscopy.
  • Treatment: treat underlying cause.

Pathogenesis

Pathophysiology

  • Retinal hemorrhage may occur because of:
    • Systemic hypertension Hypertension.
    • Blunt or penetrating ocular trauma leading to traumatic hemorrhage.
    • Chorioretinal inflammation (posterior uveitis, eg secondary to infectious, immune-mediated or neoplastic causes).
    • Chronic intraocular disease such as glaucoma Glaucoma, lens luxation Eye: lens luxation, retinal detachment Retina: detachment or intraocular neoplasia, leading to development of pre-iridal fibrovascular membranes, which are associated with increased blood vessel fragility.
    • A systemic bleeding disorder such as thrombocytopenia Immune-mediated thrombocytopenia or thrombocytopathia as listed above.
    • Choroidal and retinal neoplasia (particularly metastatic tumors or lymphoma).

Diagnosis

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Treatment

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Outcomes

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Further Reading

Publications

Refereed papers

  • Recent references from PubMed and VetMedResource.
  • Goree M, Catalfamo J L, Aber S et al (2005) Characterization of the mutations causing hemophilia B in 2 domestic cats. J Vet Intern Med 19 (2), 200-204 PubMed.
  • Brooks M (1999) Hereditary bleeding disorders in dogs and cats. Vet Med 94 (6), 555-564 VetMedResource.
  • Sansom J, Barnett K C, Dunn K A et al (1994) Ocular disease associated with hypertension in 16 cats. JSAP 35 (12), 604-611 VetMedResource.
  • Jordan H L, Grindem C B, Breitschwerdt E B (1993) Thrombocytopenia in cats: a retrospective study of 41 cases. J Vet Intern Med (5), 261-265 PubMed.
  • Maggio-Price L, Dodds W J (1993) Factor IX deficiency (Hemophilia B) in a family of British Shorthair cats. JAVMA 203 (12), 1702-1704 PubMed.
  • Littlewood J D, Evans R J (1990) A combined deficiency of factor VIII and contact activation defect in a family of cats. Br Vet J 146 (1), 30-35 PubMed.
  • Maddison J E, Watson A D, Eade I G et al (1990) Vitamin-K dependent multifactor coagulopathy in Devon Rex cats. JAVMA 197 (11), 1495-1497 PubMed.
  • Fischer C A (1970) Retinopathy in anemic cats. JAVMA 156 (10), 1415-1427 PubMed.

Other sources of information

  • Petersen-Jones S & Crispin S (2002) BSAVA Manual of Small Animal Ophthalmology. 2nd edn. British Small Animal Veterinary Association. ISBN 0 905214 54 4

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