Felis ISSN 2398-2950

Pyothorax

Contributor(s): Serena Brownlie, Philip K Nicholls, Elizabeth Rozanski, Penny Watson, Kim Willoughby

Introduction

  • Cause: bacterial or fungal infection in pleural space.
  • Signs: respiratory distress, lethargy, inappetance/anorexia, pyrexia.
  • Diagnosis: cytological evaluation and bacterial culture of pleural fluid.
  • Treatment: antibiotics, thoracic drainage, occasionally surgery.
  • Prognosis: guarded.

Pathogenesis

Etiology

Predisposing factors

General

Pathophysiology

  • Respiratory function compromized by presence of pleural fluid.
  • Systemic inflammatory response or sepsis possible.
  • Infection of pleura with pathogenic bacteria   →   inflammatory response   →   exudate formation in pleural space   →   compromize of respiratory function (reduced lung lobe expansion and paradoxical diaphragmatic movement)   →   dyspnea.
  • Bacterial endo- and exotoxins and release of host pathogens   →   pyrexia and systemic inflammatory response   →   toxic/septic shock Shock: septic.

Timecourse

  • Acute or weeks.

Diagnosis

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Treatment

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Outcomes

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Further Reading

Publications

Refereed papers

  • Recent references from PubMed and VetMedResource.
  • Demetriou J L, Foale R D, Ladlow J et al (2002) Canine and feline pyothorax: a retrospective study of 50 cases in the UK and Ireland. J Small Anim Pract 43 (9), 388-394 PubMed.
  • Waddell L S, Brady C A & Drobatz K J (2002) Risk factors, prognostic indicators, and outcome of ptothorax in cats: 80 cases (1986-1999). JAVMA 221 (6), 819-824 PubMed.
  • Davies C & Forrester S D (1996) Pleural effusion in cats - 82 cases (1987-1995). JSAP 37 (5), 217-224 PubMed.
  • Love D N, Vekselstein R, Collings S (1990) The obligate and facultatively anaerobic bacterial flora of the normal feline gingival margin. Vet Microbiol 22 (2-3), 267-275 PubMed.
  • Love D N, Johnson J L, Moore L V (1989) Bacteroides species from the oral cavity and oral-associated diseases of cats. Vet Microbiol 19 (3), 275-281 PubMed.
  • Dickie C W (1979) Feline pyothorax caused by a Borrelia-like organism and Corynebacterium pyogenes. JAVMA 174 (5), 516-517 PubMed.


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