Felis ISSN 2398-2950

Pregnancy loss (resorption and abortion)

Synonym(s): Abortion

Contributor(s): David Godfrey, Carlos Pinto

Introduction

  • Pregnancy loss in the queen may be associated with embryo resorption if occurs during the first half of pregnancy or abortion of fetuses during the second half of pregnancy.
  • Resorption of embryos and abortion may occur during the same gestation.
  • Embryo resorption can be clinically diagnosed by serial ultrasonography as the failure of one or more embryonic vesicles to show normal embryonic and fetal development according to the gestational age. The affected embryonic vesicles get progressively smaller and embryo/fetuses, whenever present, are asystolic. In resorption alone, there is no vulvar discharge.
  • Abortion is fetal death and expelling of some or all of the uterine contents in a vulvar discharge.
  • Cause: maternal trauma and miscellaneous disease primarily affecting the queen, fetal abnormalities, and specific infections such as feline leukemia virus and chlamydia. Nutritional insufficiency has been reported to cause pregnancy loss in the queen.
  • Diagnosis: history, clinical examination and laboratory tests.
  • Treatment: depends on cause.
  • Prognosis: depends on cause.

Pathogenesis

Etiology

  • Maternal distress.
  • Uterine damage.
  • Drugs:
    • Drugs causing teratogenic effects.
    • Drugs directly affecting the uterus.
  • Fetal genetic (chromosomal) abnormalities, particularly owing to inbreeding. In Manx cats, inbreeding may lead to a syndrome associated with the tailless condition likely caused by an autosomal dominant factor, often accompanied by other abnormalities such as spina bifida   Spina bifida  , urinary and fecal incontinence   Urinary incontinence  , and disturbances in gait caused by abnormal anatomy of pelvic limbs.
  • Infections:

Predisposing factors

General

  • Queens from impoverished backgrounds are probably at an increased risk of aborting as they are more likely to be involved in accidents, have major infections and to be on a poor diet.

Diagnosis

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Treatment

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Prevention

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Outcomes

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Further Reading

Publications

Refereed papers

  • Recent references fromPubMed.
  • Pretzer S D (2008)Bacterial and protozoal causes of pregnancy loss in the bitch and queen.Theriogenology70(3), 320-326PubMed.
  • Verstegen J, Dhaliwal G, Verstegen-Onclin K (2008)Canine and feline pregnancy loss due to viral and non-infectious causes: a review.Theriogenology70(3), 304-319PubMed.
  • Sturman J A, Palackal T, Imaki H, Moretz R C, French J, Wiesniewski H M (1987)Nutritional taurine deficiency and feline pregnancy and outcome.Adv Exp Med Biol217, 113-124.


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