Felis ISSN 2398-2950

Pharyngitis / tonsillitis

Contributor(s): Ed Hall, Philip K Nicholls

Introduction

  • Secondary tonsillitis seen with upper respiratory tract disease, alimentary tract disease, mouth breathing, oral disease.
  • Signs: tonsils swollen and painful, dysphagia. Even cats with small pharyngeal lesions may present with sonorous respiration, decreased activity, gagging and inappetence. Occasionally, also orthopnea.
  • Diagnosis: visual examination of tonsils, elimination of secondary causes.
  • Treatment: broad-spectrum antibiosis. Tonsillectomy if tonsils are causing pharyngeal obstruction.

Pathogenesis

Etiology

  • Bacterial infection from oral/pharyngeal cavity.
  • Chronic cough/snorting, vomiting Vomiting.
  • Mouth breathing leading to lymphoid hyperplasia.
  • Viral disease as a portal of entry, eg calicivirus Feline calicivirus.

Predisposing factors

General

  • Alimentary tract disease.
  • Chronic respiratory tract disease.
  • Mouth breathing.

Specific

Pathophysiology

  • Infection   →   lymphoid hyperplasia   →   enlargement of tonsils   →   possible eversion from tonsillar crypt.
  • Pharyngeal pain   →   dysphagia.
  • Tonsillar enlargement   →   pharyngeal obstruction to air flow.
  • Acute infection   →   pyrexia   →   malaise and inappetence.

Diagnosis

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Treatment

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Outcomes

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Further Reading

Publications

Refereed papers

  • Recent references from PubMed and VetMedResource.
  • Diehl K & Rosychuk R A (1993) Feline gingivitis-stomatitis-pharyngitis. Vet Clin North Am Small Anim Pract 23 (1), 139-153 PubMed.
  • White S D, Rosychuk R A, Janik T A et al (1992) Plasma cell stomatitis-pharyngitis in cats - 40 cases (1973-1991). JAVMA 200 (9), 1377-1380 PubMed.
  • Reindel J F, Trapp A L, Armstrong P J et al (1987) Recurrent plasmacytic stomatitis-pharyngitis in a cat with esophagitis, fibrosing gastritis, and gastric nematodiasis. JAVMA 190 (1), 65-67 PubMed.
  • Harvey C E (1984) Therapeutic strategies involving antimicrobial treatment of upper respiratory tract in small animals. JAVMA 185 (10), 1159-1161 PubMed.


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