Felis ISSN 2398-2950

Ovary: neoplasia

Contributor(s): William Brewer Jr, David Godfrey, Susan North

Introduction

  • Ovarian neoplasia is uncommon in cats; this may reflect the large numbers of animals surgically neutered.
  • Three categories:
    • Epithelial cell.
    • Germ cell.
    • Sex-cord stromal cell.
  • Signs: variable, depending on tissue of origin, signs associated with hyperestrogenism.
  • Dysgerminomas, space occupying mass with abdominal extension and ascites  Abdomen: ascites - radiograph lateral  Abdomen: ascites - DV ultrasound . Epithelial tumors are rare in the cat.
  • Treatment: surgery +/- chemotherapy Chemotherapy; general principles.
  • Prognosis: depends on tumor type.

Pathogenesis

Pathophysiology

  • 50% are sex-cord stromal tumors of which >50% of granulosa-cell tumors show malignant behavior; usually hormonally active, multiple metastatic sites.
  • Dysgerminomas account for ~15%, usually hormonally inactive.
  • Epithelial tumors rare in the cat.
  • Hormonally active tumors can lead to significant clinical signs.
  • Excess estrogen:
    • Vulvar enlargement.
    • Vaginal discharge.
    • Persistent estrus.
    • Alopecia.
    • Aplastic pancytopenia.
  • Excess progesterone:
    • Cystic endometrial hyperplasia/pyometra Pyometra complex.

Timecourse

  • Unknown, as most tumors are large enough to detect on abdominal palpation or when significant clinical signs are present; late detection is the norm.
  • Often clinical signs of hormonal excess have been present for many weeks/months.

Diagnosis

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Treatment

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Prevention

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Outcomes

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Further Reading

Publications

Refereed papers


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