Felis ISSN 2398-2950

Nerve sheath: neoplasia

Synonym(s): Schwannoma, Neurofibroma, Neurofibrosarcoma, Peripheral Nerve Sheath Tumor

Contributor(s): Philip K Nicholls, Marion O'Leary

Introduction

  • Peripheral nerve tumors are rare in the cat.
  • Various names used, but accepted nomenclature is either benign or malignant peripheral nerve sheath tumor (PNST).
  • Benign PNST (1.8% of feline skin and subcutaneous neoplasms) occur more often on head and neck.
  • Malignant PNST occur more often on head and forelimb.
  • Other sites affected also, including internal organs
  • Signs:either dermal nodular mass or evidence of peripheral nerve deficits and /or muscle atrophy.
  • Diagnosis:signs, nerve biopsy Biopsy: nerve.
  • Treatment:Surgical excision of tumor.
  • Prognosis:Depends on surgical considerations, but often guarded due to inaccessibility and late diagnosis with nerve root involvement.

Pathogenesis

Etiology

  • No known specific etiological factors.
  • Often FeLV negative FeLV test.
  • Mutation in the neu oncogene has been detected in a feline PNST.

Pathophysiology

  • Nerve sheath neoplastic transformation.
  • Uncontrolled proliferation of ensheathing cells compromises nerve function.
  • Target organ function reduced or lost.
  • Neurogenic muscle atrophy can be rapid and marked, more so than disuse atrophy.
  • Local spread along nerve to spinal cord may compress cord and compromise function in other limbs.
  • Can be extradural, or intradural and extramedullary.
  • Often middle aged to older cats.
  • Malignant PNST usually in older cats.
  • Metastasis of these tumors is not well documented.

Diagnosis

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Treatment

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Outcomes

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Further Reading

Publications

Refereed papers

  • Recent references from PubMed and VetMedResource.
  • Stoica G, Tasca S I & Kim H T (2001) Point mutation of neu oncogene in animal peripheral nerve sheath tumors. Vet Pathol 38 (6), 679-688 PubMed.
  • Watrous B J, Lipscomb T P & Heidel J R et al (1999) Malignant peripheral nerve sheath tumor in a cat. Vet Radiol Ultrasound 40 (6), 638-640 PubMed.
  • Levy M S, Maudlin G, Kapatkin A S et al (1997) Nonlymphoid vertebral canal tumors in cats: 11 cases (1987-1995). J Am Vet Med Assoc 210 (5), 663-664 PubMed.
  • Kalat M, Mayr B, Schleger W et al (1990) Trisomy D2 in a feline neurofibroma. Res Vet Sci 48 (2), 256 PubMed.
  • Ruben J M (1983) Neurofibrosarcoma in a 19-year-old cat. Vet Rec 113 (6), 135 PubMed.

Other sources of information

  • Goldschmidt M H & Hendrick M J (2002) Chapter 2. Tumors of the skin and soft tissues. In: Meuten DJ (Ed.) Tumors in Domestic Animals. 4th Edn. Iowa State Press.
  • Goldschmidt M H & Shofer F S (1992) Skin tumors of the dog & cat. Pergamon Press. Oxford, UK.
  • Fenner W R (1994) Chapter 45. Diseases of the brain, spinal cord and peripheral nerves.  In: Sherding RG (Ed) The cat - diseases and clinical management. Churchill-Livingstone. New York.Pp1507-1568.
  • Gross T L, Ihrke P J & Walder E J (1992) Veterinary dermatopathology - A macroscopic and microscopic evaluation of canine and feline skin disease.  Mosby Year Book. London.


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