Felis ISSN 2398-2950

Megaesophagus

Synonym(s): Megaoesophagus; ME

Contributor(s): Ed Hall, Philip K Nicholls, Laurent Garosi

Introduction

  • Generalized and diffuse dilation of esophagus preventing normal forward propulsion of ingesta.
  • Cause: primary neuromuscular disease - congenital or acquired. Feline dysautonomia Feline dysautonomia is the most common cause of acquired feline megaesophagus recognized; most are idiopathic.
  • Signs: regurgitation, repeated swallowing attempts, poor body condition and secondary respiratory sounds.
  • Diagnosis: contrast radiography.
  • Treatment: dependent on cause.
  • Prognosis: guarded for resolution but management may alleviate signs.
Print off the owner factsheet Megaoesophagus Megaoesophagus to give to your client.

Pathogenesis

Etiology

  • Congenital: absence of normal motility preventing normal forward propulsion of ingesta, persistent right aortic arch and strictures with dilation cranial to lesion.
  • Acquired: neuromuscular disease, eg feline dysautonomia Feline dysautonomia, myasthenia gravis Myasthenia gravis, lead poisoning Lead toxicity, systemic muscular diseases such as polymyositis and polymyopathy.
  • Pyloric dyssynergia due to abnormal pyloric function - most commonly seen in Siamese Siamese cats.
  • Idiopathic.

Specific

Pathophysiology

  • Absence of normal motility  →  failure of esophagus to propel ingesta forward  →  pooling of ingesta in dilated esophagus  →  regurgitation  →  possible aspiration of vomitus  →  bronchopneumonia.

Diagnosis

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Treatment

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Outcomes

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Further Reading

Publications

Refereed papers

  • Recent references from PubMed and VetMedResource.
  • Schneider J, Ames M, DiCicco M et al (2015) Recovery of normal oesphageal function in a kitten with diffuse megaoesphagus and an occult lower oesphgageal stritcure. J Feline Med Surg 17 (6), 557-561 PubMed.
  • Frowde P E, Battersby I A, Whitley N T et al (2011) Oesophageal disease in 33 cats. J Feline Med Surg 13 (8), 564-569 PubMed.
  • Byron J K, Shadwick S R, Bennett A R (2010) Megaoesophagus in a 6-month-old cat secondary to a nasopharyngeal polyp. J Feline Med Surg 12 (4), 322-324 PubMed.
  • Martínez N I, Cook W, Troy G C et al (2001) Intermittent gastro esophageal intussusception in a cat with idiopathic megaesophagus. JAAHA 37 (3), 234-237 PubMed.
  • Moses L, Harpster N K, Beck K A et al (2000) Esophageal motility dysfunction in cats - a study of 44 cases. JAAHA 36 (4), 309-312 PubMed.
  • Guilford W G (1990) Megaesophagus in the dog and cat. Seminars in Vet Med and Surg (1), 37-45 PubMed.


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