Felis ISSN 2398-2950

Lung: pulmonary hemorrhage

Contributor(s): Elisa Mazzaferro, Philip K Nicholls, Elizabeth Rozanski, Penny Watson

Introduction

  • Cause: pulmonary contusion, coagulopathies, thrombocytopenia, rodenticide toxicity, neoplasia.
  • Signs: cough, may be hemoptysis, may be normal unless severe blood loss and secondary bacterial bronchopneumonia. Also tachypnea / respiratory distress.
  • Diagnosis: history, signs, radiography, endoscopy, coagulation studies.
  • Treatment: oxygen / blood transfusion, plasma volume expanders, treat underlying pathology.
  • Prognosis: fair to good if response to treatment.

Pathogenesis

Etiology

Predisposing factors

General

Specific

  • Congenital coagulopathies rare but may cause profound bleeding especially after trauma.

Pathophysiology

  • Pulmonary contusion, eg post-trauma   →   bleeding   →   hemoptysis in some rare cases (most cats hit hard enough to have contusions are killed).
  • Coagulopathy or thrombocytopenia   →   intrapulmonary hemorrhage.
  • Metastatic/invasive neoplasia   →   destroying blood vessels   →   bleeding into lung   →   hemoptysis.

Timecourse

  • Usually sudden onset with history of trauma.

Diagnosis

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Treatment

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Prevention

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Outcomes

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Further Reading

Publications

Refereed papers

  • Recent references from PubMed and VetMedResource.
  • Sigrist N E, Doherr M G, Spreng D E (2004) Clinical findings and diagnostic value of posttraumatic thoracic radiographs in dogs and cats with blunt trauma. J Vet Emerg Crit Care 14 (4), 259-268 Wiley Online Library.
  • Hackner S G (1995) Emergency management of traumatic pulmonary contusions. Comp Cont Ed Pract Vet 17 (5), 677-686 VetMedResource.
  • Caylor K B (1994) Pulmonary contusion in a cat - case report. JAVMA 205, 561-562.
  • Murtaugh R J (1994) Acute respiratory distress. Vet Clinic North Am 24 (6), 1041-1055 PubMed.


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