Felis ISSN 2398-2950

Liver: toxic hepatitis

Contributor(s): Kyle Braund, Philip K Nicholls, Penny Watson

Introduction

  • Same as Liver: acute disease.
  • Cause: ingestion of plant toxins, chemicals Lead toxicity, therapeutic agents, insect envenomation.
  • Signs: anorexia, depression, vomiting, diarrhea.
  • Diagnosis: blood biochemistry, histopathology, history of toxin ingestion, medication, etc.
  • Treatment: supportive and elimination of toxin if identified.
  • Prognosis: depends on severity of hepatic insult, usually favorable.

Pathogenesis

Etiology

Drugs

Chemicals

Plant toxins

  • Aflatoxin.
  • Blue-green algae toxin.
  • Amanita mushroom toxin.
  • Pyrrolizidine alkaloids.

Bacterial endotoxins

Pathophysiology

  • Cumulative hepatic insult   →   functional reserve capacity exceeded   →   failure to perform diverse metabolic functions   →   clinical signs.
  • Inadequate bile delivery to intestine   →   impaired fat digestion   →   diarrhea.
  • Hepatic cellular damage   →   cellular release of bilirubin   →   jaundice.
  • Inflammation of biliary system   →   partial obstruction to biliary flow   →   jaundice.
  • Decreased production of clotting factors   →   bleeding tendency.
  • Failure to detoxify ammonia and mercaptans from intestine   →   hepatic encephalopathy.

Timecourse

  • Within hours of ingestion of toxin.
  • Less than or equal to 2 weeks duration with no previous evidence of hepatobiliary disease.

Diagnosis

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Treatment

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Outcomes

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Further Reading

Publications

Refereed papers

  • Recent references from PubMed and VetMedResource.
  • Hughes D & King L G (1995) The diagnosis and management of acute liver failure in dogs and cats. Vet Clin North Am Small Anim Pract 25 (2), 437-460 PubMed.
  • Bunch S E (1993) Hepatotoxicity associated with pharmacologic agents in dogs and cats. Vet Clin North Am Small Anim Pract 23 (3), 659-670 PubMed.

Other sources of information

  • Bunch S E (2000) Acute hepatic disorders and systemic disorders that involve the liver. In:Textbook of Veterinary Internal Medicine. 5th edn. Ettinger S J & Feldman E C (eds). W B Saunders, Philadelphia. pp 1326-1340.
  • Laflamme D P (2000) Nutritional management of liver disease. In:Kirk's Current Veterinary Therapy XIII. Bonagura J D (ed). W B Saunders, Philadelphia. pp 693-697.


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