ISSN 2398-2950      

Leukemia

ffelis

Synonym(s): Myeloproliferative, lymphoproliferative disease


Introduction

  • 13% of all feline neoplasms are hematopoietic.
  • The presence of excessive numbers of abnormal, neoplastic cells in both peripheral blood and bone marrow.
  • Both myeloproliferative and lymphoproliferative diseases, classified as acute versus chronic and by cell lines affected (see below).
  • Signs: non-specific, due to consequences of disease process, eg cytopenia, hypercalcemia.
  • Diagnosis: peripheral blood smears, bone marrow aspirate/biopsy.
  • Treatment: supportive, symptomatic, specific cytotoxic agents depending on type of leukemia.
  • Prognosis: favorable in chronic forms, poor in acute.
Print off the owner factsheet on Feline leukaemia to give to your client.

Pathogenesis

Etiology

Pathophysiology

  • Neoplastic transformation of cells involved in hematopoiesis   →   massive proliferation of neoplastic cells.
  • Transformation of stem cells or early precursors   →   proliferation of immature cells incapable of maturation   →  acute leukemia  →   large numbers of immature cells in bone marrow and peripheral blood   →   severe non-regenerative cytopenia   →   may result in bleeding (thrombocytopenia), sepsis (neutropenia), profound weakness and lethargy (anemia).
  • Disseminated intravascular coagulation   →   bleeding diathesis.
  • Transformation of late precursor cells   →   proliferation of mature, differentiated cells   →  chronic leukemia  →   less severe cytopenia.
  • Excessive numbers of circulating cells/hyperproteinemia   →   hyperviscosity   →   decreased oxygen transport to capillary beds   →   microthrombi of tumor cells.
  • Production of humoral factors   →   stimulation of osteoclasts   →   hypercalcemia of malignancy   →   renal failure.

Timecourse

  • Acute leukemia progresses rapidly over days/weeks.
  • Chronic leukemia over months/years.

Diagnosis

This article is available in full to registered subscribers

Sign up now to obtain ten tokens to view any ten Vetlexicon articles, images, sounds or videos, or Login

Treatment

This article is available in full to registered subscribers

Sign up now to obtain ten tokens to view any ten Vetlexicon articles, images, sounds or videos, or Login

Outcomes

This article is available in full to registered subscribers

Sign up now to obtain ten tokens to view any ten Vetlexicon articles, images, sounds or videos, or Login

Further Reading

Publications

Refereed papers

  • Recent references from PubMed and VetMedResource.
  • Dobson J, Villiers E & Morris J (2006) Diagnosis and management of leukaemia in dogs and cats. In Practice 28 (1), 22-31 VetMedResource.
  • Shimoda T, Shiranaga N, Mashita T et al (2000) Chronic myelomonocytic leukemia in a cat. J Vet Med Sci 62 (2), 195-197 PubMed.
  • Breuer W, Hermanns W & Thiele J (1999) Myelodysplastic syndrome (MDS), acute myeloid leukaemia (AML) and chronic myeloproliferative disorder (CMPD) in cats. J Comp Pathol 121 (3), 203-216 PubMed.
  • Grindem C B, Perman V & Stevens J B (1985) Morphological classification and clinical and pathological characteristics of spontaneous leukemia in 10 cats. JAAHA 21 (2), 227-236 VetMedResource.
  • Gilmore C E & Holzworth J (1971) Naturally occurring feline leukemia clinical, pathological and differential diagnostic features. JAVMA 158 (6), 1013 PubMed.
  • Holzworth J (1960) Leukemia and related neoplasms in the cat. 1. Lymphoid malignancies. JAVMA 136, 47-69 PubMed.

Other sources of information

  • Ward H & Couto C G Myeloid leukemia. In: Consultations in feline internal medicine 3.pp 509-513.
  • Sherding R G (1994) In: The Cat - diseases and Clinical Management. Ed R G Sherding. 2nd edition. New York: Churchill Livingstone. pp 789-796.

Can’t find what you’re looking for?

We have an ever growing content library on Vetlexicon so if you ever find we haven't covered something that you need please fill in the form below and let us know!