Felis ISSN 2398-2950

Leiomyoma / leiomyosarcoma

Contributor(s): Philip K Nicholls, Marion O'Leary, Isabelle Desmas-Bazelle

Introduction

  • Smooth muscle tumors, with various locations according to presence of smooth muscle. In the cat, reported locations include:
    • Female reproductive tract:
      • Vulval, vaginal and uterine tumors reported.
      • In uterus leiomyosarcomas are less common than leiomyomas, which are even less common than adenocarcinoma.
    • Gastrointestinal tract:
      • Stomach, small intestine, ileocecal junction, and large intestinal tumors reported.
    • Other sites:
      • Urinary bladder, spleen.
      • Also rarely skin (as piloleiomyoma), tongue, perineal/pelvic canal, kidney, esophagus.
  • Signs: dependant upon location:
    • Weight loss.
    • Inappetence.
    • Vomiting.
    • Fecal tenesmus.
    • Dystocia.
    • Can be incidental (eg uterine tumor noted at ovariohysterectomy).
  • Diagnosis: imaging; rectal examination, cytology and/or histopathology.
  • Treatment: surgery +/- chemotherapy.
  • Prognosis: depends on tumor type and location.

Pathogenesis

Predisposing factors

General

  • Spontaneous tumor with no confirmed predisposing factors.

Pathophysiology

  • Stomach and small intestinal leiomyomas occur in similar frequency, with ileocecal tumors less common. Also affecting vulva, vagina and uterus.
  • Leiomyosarcomas more common in small intestine, large intestine, then stomach, spleen. Also affecting urinary bladder, uterus and vagina. Occasional  reports in skin and tongue.
  • Uterine leiomyosarcomas metastasize to diaphragm and sternal nodes or elsewhere.
  • Some leiomyomas may depend upon ovarian steroidal hormones for growth

Timecourse

  • Weeks to months.
  • Present when tumors are causing other clinical signs, eg tenesmus with vaginal tumors.
  • Metastasis hematogenously.

Diagnosis

This article is available in full to registered subscribers

Sign up now to purchase a 30 day trial, or Login

Treatment

This article is available in full to registered subscribers

Sign up now to purchase a 30 day trial, or Login

Prevention

This article is available in full to registered subscribers

Sign up now to purchase a 30 day trial, or Login

Outcomes

This article is available in full to registered subscribers

Sign up now to purchase a 30 day trial, or Login

Further Reading

Publications

Refereed papers

  • Recent references from PubMed and VetMedResource.
  • Evans D, Fowlkes N (2016) Renal leiomyosarcoma in a cat. J Vet Diagn Invest 28 (3), 315-318 PubMed.
  • Teo L H, Cahalan S D, Benigni L et al (2014) Oesophageal angioleiomyosarcoma in a cat. J Feline Med Surg 16 (10), 846-852 PubMed.
  • Liu S M, Mikaelian I (2003) Cutaneous smooth muscle tumors in the dog and cat. Vet Pathol 40 (6), 685-692 PubMed.
  • Miller M A, Ramos-Vara J A, Dickerson M F et al (2003) Uterine neoplasia in 13 cats. J Vet Diagn Invest 15 (6), 515-522 PubMed.
  • Martín de las Mulas J, Rollón E, Millán Y et al (2002) Perineal leiomyoma expressing steroidal hormone receptors in a queen. Vet Rec 150 (18), 578-579 PubMed.
  • Pennick D G (1998) Characterization of gastrointestinal tumors. Vet Clin North Am Small Anim Pract 28 (4), 777-797 PubMed.
  • Finnie J W, Leong J S, Milios J et al (1995) Multiple piloleiomyomas in a cat. J Comp Pathol 113 (2), 201-204 PubMed.
  • Swalec K M, Smeak D D, Baker A L (1989) Urethral leiomyoma in a cat. J Am Vet Med Assoc 195 (7), 961-962 PubMed.
  • Papparella S & Roperto F (1984) Spontaneous uterine tumors in three cats. Vet Pathol 21 (2), 257-258 PubMed.

Other sources of information

  • Vail D M, Withrow S J, Page R L (2013) Cancer of the gastrointestinal tract. In: Small Animal Clinical Oncology. Withrow S J & MacEwen E G (eds). 5th edn. W B Saunders, Philadelphia Co. pp 356-369.
  • Cooper B J & Valentine B A (2002) Tumors of muscle. In: Meuten DJ (Ed) Tumors in Domestic Animals. 4th Edn. Chapter 6, pp319-363. Iowa State Press.
  • Carpenter J L, Andrews K L & Holzworth J (1987) Tumors and tumor-like lesions. In: Holzworth J (Ed) Diseases of the cat  - Medicine and surgery. Chapter 11, pp 406-596. WB Saunders.


ADDED