Felis ISSN 2398-2950

Ivermectin toxicity

Contributor(s): Alexander Campbell, Lisa Moore

Introduction

  • GABA (gamma aminobutyric acid) agonist.
  • Signs: nervous signs, muscle tremors, ataxia, stupor, coma and death.
  • Diagnosis: history, clinical signs.
  • Treatment: no antidote - treatment is symptomatic, though lipid rescue techniques have been deployed successfully.
  • Prognosis: death comparatively rare with supportive treatment.

Pathogenesis

Etiology

  • Poisoning usually the result of iatrogenic overdose.
  • Occasionally due to ingestion of horse anthelmintic.

Pathophysiology

  • Ingestion of a toxic dose has a direct effect on the brain.
  • Most clinical signs of poisoning can be attributed to the increased effects of GABA.

Timecourse

  • Signs appear 3-24 hours after ingestion.
  • Persist for 1-2 days to more than a week.
  • Following subcutaneous administration of 0.2 mg/kg peak plasma concentrations were recorded at 1.22 days and elimination half-life was measured at 2.53 days. Ivermectin was still detectable 25 days after dosing.

Diagnosis

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Treatment

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Prevention

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Outcomes

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Further Reading

Publications

Refereed papers

  • Recent references from PubMed and VetMedResource.
  • Pritchard J (2010) Treating ivermectin toxicity in cats. Vet Rec 166 (24), 766 PubMed.
  • Chittrakarn S, Janchawee B, Ruangrut P et al (2008) Pharmacokinetics of ivermectin in cats receiving in a single subcutaneous dose. Res Vet Sci 86 (3), 503-507 PubMed.
  • Steenbergen V M (2005) Proper use of ivermectin in cats. Vet Tech 26 (3), 211-213 ResearchGate.
  • Muhammad G, Jabbar A, Khan M Z et al (2004) Use of neostigmine in massive ivermectin toxicity in cats. Vet Hum Toxicol 46 (1), 28-29 PubMed.
  • Lewis D T, Merchant S R, Neer M (1994) Ivermectin toxicosis in a kitten. J Am Vet Med Assoc 205 (4), 584-586 PubMed.
  • Frischke H, Hunt L (1991) Alberta. Suspected ivermectin toxicity in kittens. Can Vet J 32 (4), 245 PubMed.
  • Lovell R A (1990) Ivermectin and piperazine toxicoses in dogs and cats. Vet Clin N Am Small Anim Pract 20 (2), 453-468 PubMed.
  • Rowley J (1988) Ivermectin toxicity in two kittens. Compan Anim Pract (9), 31-32 VetMedResource

Organisation(s)


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