Felis ISSN 2398-2950

Hip: dysplasia

Contributor(s): Sorrel Langley-Hobbs, Adrian M Wallace

Introduction

  • Cause: a developmental or congenital disorder that has a probable heritable component.
  • Signs: inactivity, lameness, reluctance to jump or climb.
  • Diagnosis: based on clinical signs, pain on hip manipulation, radiography and palpation.
  • Treatment: conservative, medical or surgical.
  • Prognosis: good with appropriate management.

Pathogenesis

Etiology

  • A polygeneic mode of inheritance is suspected. Environmental factors, eg overfeeding and obesity may influence phenotypic expression.

Predisposing factors

General

  • Small gene pool in some pure bred cats.
  • Large breed cats.
  • Weak association between hip dysplasia and medial patella luxation Patella: luxation.

Pathophysiology

  • Increased hip laxity is associated with an increased incidence of degenerative joint disease in the hip Arthritis: osteoarthritis. Thus laxity in kittens is thought to play an important role in the pathogenesis of hip dysplasia.

Timecourse

  • The exact timing of the development of laxity has not been established in cats; they may be born with abnormal hips or laxity may develop in the first few months following birth as is the case in dogs. Animals typically present with clinical signs at one years of age or less. Older animals may present with coxofemoral osteoarthritis Arthritis: osteoarthritis secondary to hip dysplasia Hip: osteoarthritis secondary to dysplasia - radiograph VD .

Epidemiology

  • Currently no genetic studies published.

Diagnosis

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Treatment

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Prevention

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Outcomes

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Further Reading

Publications

Refereed papers

  • Recent references from PubMed and VetMedResource.
  • Keller G G, Reed A L, Lattimer J C et al (1999) Hip dysplasia: a feline population study. Vet Radiol Ultrasound 40 (5), 460-464 PubMed.
  • Smith G K, Langenbach A, Green P A et al (1999) Evaluation of the association between medial patellar luxation and hip dysplasia in cats. JAVMA 215 (1), 40-45 PubMed
  • Langenbach A, Green P, Giger U et al (1998) Relationship between degenerative joint disease and hip joint laxity by use of distraction index and Norberg angle measurement in a group of cats. JAVMA 213 (10), 1439-1443 PubMed.
  • Patsikas M N, Papazoglou L G, Komninou A et al (1998) Hip dysplasia in the cat; a report of three cases. JSAP 39 (6), 290-294 PubMed.
  • Hayes H M Jr., Wilson G P, Burt J K (1979) Feline Hip Dysplasia. JAAHA 14 (4),  447-448 VetMedResource.
  • Holt P E (1978) Hip dysplasia in a cat. JSAP 19 (5), 273-276 PubMed.

Other sources of information

  • Voss K, Langley-Hobbs S J, Montavon P M (2009) Hip Joint. In:Feline Orthopedic Surgery and Musculoskeletal disease. Eds P M Montavon, K Voss, S J Langley-Hobbs Elsevier Saunders. pp 443-454.


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