Felis ISSN 2398-2950

Hemostatic disorders: inherited

Synonym(s): Bleeding disorders

Contributor(s): Severine Tasker

Introduction

  • Signs: often associated with hemorrhage - usually present at a young age.
  • Treatment: symptomatic often requiring blood product administration.
  • Prognosis: depends on underlying cause.

Pathogenesis

Predisposing factors

General

  • Defective platelet adhesion:
    • Reduced von Willebrand factor (VWF) very uncommon in cats.
    • Reduced platelet function (rare). Chediak-Higashi sydrome Chediak-Higashi syndrome   in blue smoke Persians.
    • Blood vessel defects (very rare).
  • Coagulation factor deficiency:
    • Factor XII (Hageman) deficiency Factor XII deficiency: most common inherited coagulopathy in cats but does no tcause in vivo bleeding if present in isolation.
    • Hemophilia A (Factor VII deficiency) seen in Persians.
    • Hemophilia B (Factor IX deficiency: Christmas disease) seen in Birman Birman, British Shorthair British shorthair and Siamese cats Siamese.
    • Vitamin-K responsive coagulopathy in Devon Rex cats Vitamin K1 responsive coagulopathy (Devon Rex).
    • Factor I +/- XI deficiency in Maine Coons Maine Coon.
    • Isolated reports of other factor deficiencies.

Pathophysiology

  • May be defect in:
    • Primary hemostasis  Primary hemostasis  - involves platelet adhesion via vWF, to the subendothelial collagen, resulting in the formation of a platelet plug, as well as reflex vasoconstriction of the blood vessel.
    • Secondary hemostasis  Secondary hemostasis 01   Secondary hemostasis 02  - involves formation of fibrin by coagulation factors to stabilize the primary hemostatic platelet plug. Coagulation cascade is classically divided into intrinsic and extrinsic pathways with a final common pathway.

Diagnosis

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Treatment

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Prevention

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Outcomes

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Further Reading

Publications

Refereed papers

  • Recent references from PubMed and VetMedResource.
  • Brown R (2008) Haemophilia in Maine Coon cats. Vet Rec 163 (22), 667 PubMed.
  • Brooks M & DeWilde L (2006) Feline Factor XII Deficiency. Comp Contin Educ Pract Vet 28 (2), 148-155 VetMedResource.
  • Goree M, Catalfamo J L, Aber S et al (2005) Characterization of the mutations causing hemophilia B in 2 domestic cats. J Vet Intern Med 19 (2), 200-204 PubMed.
  • Smith W, Day T & Mackin A (2005) Diagnosing Bleeding Disorders. Comp Contin Educ Pract Vet 27 (11), 828-843 VetMedResource.
  • Bay J D, Scott M A & Hans J E (2000) Reference values for activated coagulation time in cats. Am J Vet Res 61 (7), 750-753 PubMed.
  • Callan M B, Griot-Wenk M E, Hackner S G et al (2000) Persistent thrombopathy causing bleeding in 2 domestic shorthaired cats. J Vet Intern Med 14 (2), 217-220 PubMed.
  • Maggio-Price L & Dodds W J (1993) Factor IX deficiency (hemophilia B) in a family of British shorthair cats. JAVMA 203 (12), 1702-1704 PubMed.
  • Cowles B E, Meyers K M, Wardrop K J et al (1992) Prolonged bleeding time of Chediak-Higashi cats corrected by platelet transfusion. Thromb Haemost 67 (6), 708-712 PubMed.
  • Soute B A, Ulrich M M, Watson A D et al (1992) Congential deficiency of all vitamin K-dependent blood coagulation factors due to a defective vitamin K-dependent carboxylase in Devon Rex cats. Thromb Haemost 68 (5), 521-525 PubMed.
  • Littlewood J D & Evans R J (1990) A combined deficiency of factor VIII and contact activation defect in a family of cats. Br Vet J 146 (1), 30-35 PubMed.
  • Maddison J E, Watson A D, Eade I G et al (1990) Vitamin K-dependent multifactor coagulopathy in Devon Rex cats. JAVMA 197 (11), 1495-1457 PubMed.
  • Kier A B, Bresnahan J F, White F J et al (1980) The inheritance pattern of factor XII (Hageman) deficiency in domestic cats. Can J Comp Med 44 (3), 309-314 PubMed.
  • Cotter S M, Brenner R M, Dodds W J (1978) Hemophilia A in three unrelated cats. JAVMA 172 (2), 166-168 PubMed.

Other sources of information

  • Stokol T (2005) Disorders of haemostasis. In: BSAVA Manual of Canine and Feline Clinical Pathology. Villiers E & Blackwood L (eds). pp 83-98, BSAVA, Gloucester.


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