ISSN 2398-2950      

Haw's syndrome

ffelis

Podcast: Haw's syndrome


Introduction

  • Cause: idiopathic but speculatively it may be associated with tapeworm infestation or virus infection.
  • Signs: a syndrome of prolapse of the third eyelids (nictitating membranes) often with diarrhea as well.
  • Occasionally cats can be ill but they will recover with supportive care.
  • Diagnosis: usually just on signs.
  • Treatment: none.
  • Prognosis: good, generally completely benign and self-limiting.
Print off the Owner factsheet Haw's syndrome to give to your client.

Pathogenesis

Etiology

  • Idiopathic.
  • Some clinicians think that there is a connection with tapeworm infestations.
  • There is some evidence that the cause is an enteric virus infection. A torovirus-like agent was implicated in one study but this was not supported in a second paper.

Predisposing factors

General

  • Age (<2 years old).
  • Multiple cat household.
  • Contact with cats which go outside.

Pathophysiology

  • The condition is idiopathic and very little research has been performed.
  • It is unknown whether there is a single condition or multiple causes with different pathological processes
  • It is likely that there is disease affecting the autonomic nervous system.
  • The main theory for this condition is that an enteric viral infection is the cause.
  • How the virus causes diarrhea or third eyelid protrusion is unknown.
  • It has been assumed that the third eyelid protrusion is caused by a dysfunction of the sympathetic innervation to the third eyelid which when functioning causes the third eyelid to be in the normal retracted position.

Timecourse

  • Weeks to months.
  • May be recurrent.
  • When multiple, cats in a household are affected there is often a couple of weeks between the onset in different individuals.

Epidemiology

  • The evidence that this is caused by an infection is that there are (largely anecdotal) reports that the syndrome often affects several cats in a multiple cat household.
  • Some breeding colonies see successive litters of kittens affected.

Diagnosis

This article is available in full to registered subscribers

Sign up now to obtain ten tokens to view any ten Vetlexicon articles, images, sounds or videos, or Login

Treatment

This article is available in full to registered subscribers

Sign up now to obtain ten tokens to view any ten Vetlexicon articles, images, sounds or videos, or Login

Outcomes

This article is available in full to registered subscribers

Sign up now to obtain ten tokens to view any ten Vetlexicon articles, images, sounds or videos, or Login

Further Reading

Publications

Refereed papers

  • Recent references from PubMed and VetMedResource.
  • Smith C H, Meers J, Wilks C R et al (1997) A survey for torovirus in New Zealand cats with protruding nictatating membranes. N Z Vet J 45 (2), 41-43 PubMed.
  • Papasouliotis K & Gruffydd-Jones T (1996) Chronic diarrhea/protrusion of the nictitating membrane in cats and torovirus. Brits VMA in Pract 18, 5.
  • Muir P, Harbour D A, Gruffydd-Jones T J et al (1990) A clinical and microbiological study of cats with protruding nictitating membrane and diarrhea - isolation of a novel virus. Vet Rec 127 (13), 324-330 PubMed.

Other sources of information

  • Mitchell N & James Oliver J (2015) Feline Ophthalmology – The Manual. Natasha Mitchell and James Oliver. Grupo Asis. ISBN 978-84-16315-11-6.
  • BSAVA Manual of Canine and Feline Ophthalmology (2014) 3rd edn. Edited by David Gould and Gillian McLellan. ISBN 978-1-905319-42-8.
  • BSAVA Manual of Feline Practice (2013) Edited by Harvey and Tasker. ISBN 978190531939-8.
     

Can’t find what you’re looking for?

We have an ever growing content library on Vetlexicon so if you ever find we haven't covered something that you need please fill in the form below and let us know!

 
 
 
 

To show you are not a Bot please can you enter the number showing adjacent to this field

 Security code